SILVER BIRCH – BETULA VERRUCOSA

Click to purchase Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa (Buds), Silver Birch Sap, and Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa (Germinating Seeds).

Part Used:


Buds, Sap, Seeds

The Betula verrucosa is one of a number of birches native to parts of South America and to temperate and arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere. This elegant, fast-growing tree grows up to 3 ft a year, reaching a height of 70 ft. The Betula verrucosa is distinguished by its white, scaly bark with conspicuous black patches. The shoots are rough with small warts. Its drooping twigs hang down from stiffly held main branches, and its small, oval leaves (1–2 inches long) are glossy-green, toothed, and pointed at the tips. The flowers of the Betula verrucosa bloom in April, and its papery winged seeds ripen from July to August. The tree turns bright yellow in autumn, exposing its ornamental bark.

Common uses of its soft, nondurable wood include bobbins for thread mills, herring-barrel staves, broom handles, and various fancy articles. Other uses include oil, charcoal, and saccharine for preparations of beer, wine, spirits, and vinegar.

When the stem of the tree is wounded, a saccharine juice flows out which is susceptible, with yeast, to vinous fermentation. Beer, wine, spirit, and vinegar are prepared from it in some parts of Europe. Birch Wine is concocted from this thin, sugary sap of the tree. The sap is collected from incisions made in the trees in March. Honey, cloves and lemon peel are added and then the whole fermented with yeast. It makes a very pleasant cordial, formerly much appreciated. From 16 to 18 gallons of sap may be drawn from one large tree, and a moderate tapping does no harm.


Abstracts of Published Research on Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa:


1. Allergy. 2006 Oct;61(10):1177-83.
Clinical efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy with tree pollen extract in children. Valovirta E, Jacobsen L, Ljørring C, Koivikko A, Savolainen J.

2. Allergy. 2002 Apr;57(4):297-305.
The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy – a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Bødtger U, Poulsen LK, Jacobi HH, Malling HJ.


Silver Birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes):

Only found at higher altitudes with a white silver bark hairless and warty. Silver birch being diploid (with two sets of chromosomes), whereas White birch is tetraploid (four sets of chromosomes). The two have differences in habitat requirements, with White birch commoner on wet, poorly drained sites such as clay soils and peat bogs, and Silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils.

During the last decade in the mountain regions: 1) change in the pollution spectrum occurred, the importance of once less significant pollutants increased (NOx, O3), 1) significant negative long-term impact of high sulfur deposition is observed, mainly in degrading forest soils; 2) the impact of sharp changes of meteorological factors – temperature, precipitation – start to be more important; 3) acid deposition is a permanent risk which will affect the tree growth in the ridge parts; 4) every forest region is specific, to find support for the long-term intensive research of the forest ecosystems in mountain regions is of importance.

References: Kaupenjohann, M., Schneider, B., Hantschel, R., Zech, W., Horn R. 1988: Sulphur acid rain treatment of Picea abies (L.) Karst. effects on nutrient solution, through fall chemistry, and tree nutrition. Z. Pflanzenernähr. Bodenk. 151: 123-126.
Lomsky, B., Srámek,V. 1999: damage of the forest stands in the Ore Mts. during period 1995-1997. J. For. Sci. 45: 169-180.
Materna, J. 1984: Ohrozeni horskych smrcin znecistenim ovzdusi. Lesnictvi 30: 559-568.

Report on the state of forest and forestry in the Czech Republic 1997 and 2000: Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, pp. 124 resp. pp. 137. Silver birch genotypes have a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in their growth. Therefore, defense costs in terms of lower growth rate appear to be highly dependent on the environment.

In mature trees, the amount of triterpenoids was less than 1 mg/g (DW), whereas the concentration in juvenile plantlets was up to 64 mg/g (DW). In embryonic buds and shoots of a mature tree the concentration was the same as for juvenile plantlets and a broader composition of phytochemicals than any other type of growth.

References: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
Secondary phytochemicals, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids are produce by the plant and act as defense protecting agents. They are also important in plant tolerance to UV-B, fulfilling the dual role as screens that reduce UV-B penetration in plant tissues, and as antioxidants protecting from damage by reactive oxidant species. Just like human beings antioxidant lowers ROS species.

Differences in the composition of the phytochemical constituents between Silver Birch & White Birch buds although the trees are similar the buds are very distinctively different. The reasons being are that silver birch grows in high planes higher altitude and produces a different composition of phytochemicals in the defense in protecting tissues from damaging UV-light. While the white birch which grows in lower plane has to contend with the defense against more pathogens and herbivores therefore produces another group of phytochemicals against such invasion.

The SAP of the Silver Birch is preferred tends to grow further away form city pollution in higher plane-altitude. The internal spring cleaning agent is considered the “Elixir of Life” rich in minerals and oligo-elements. Also represent Hope & Happiness. All Birches symbolized light contrary to Oak. Considered the “Nephritic Tree” and the “Tree of Life”. The presence of Potassium in large quantities is vital to the cellular process of the buds for growth, as well as for the health of human embryos. Mother’s milk also contains 30% Potassium that is why if in need, the sap of Silver Birch (Betula Verrucosa) can replace mother’s milk in a stranded emergency only and not for ongoing usage.

Silver Birch sap may be consumed both fresh and naturally fermented. It has also been made into wine and vodka. In Russia, malic and citric acid are added to birch sap to produce a juice much like apple juice. Each mature tree will produce about a gallon of birch sap each day for 10 to 20 days during a season that only lasts about a month. Birch sap must be collected before any green leaves have appeared in the spring, otherwise it becomes bitter.

The refreshing liquid is consumed as a tonic and traditional beverage in many northern European countries such as France, Italy, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, and Finland and as well as parts of northern China and Korea.

By combining the bottom of the Silver Birch (Betula Verrucosa) sap with the top part being the buds of Black Currant (Ribes Nigrum) you can amplify the therapeutic action of the sap and reduce the amount used daily. In this way you reinforce the detoxifying action of the sap and diversify its properties. The buds of Black Currant exercise a revitalizing tonic action and fights fatigue due to its action on the adrenal glands. It relieves allergic reactions due to the manganese content in the sap.

The sap serves as a “Spring Cleaning” that eliminates winter accumulated toxins from sedentary lifestyle. It has a Detergent action on the Kidneys, Bladder and Gallbladder. Purifies, Strengthen and Revitalize. The birch sap is one of the best natural detoxifying natural agents found in nature. It is a mild diuretic and depurating agent. Birch sap100% pure and alive.

Nutritional: The sap is often a slightly sweet, thin syrupy-watery liquid. The tree sap contains sugars (namely xylitol), proteins, amino acids, and enzymes, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, silica, zinc, manganese, selenium, sodium, cobalt, iron, copper, gold, chromium, lithium. Vitamin C. Fat: < 0.1 g, Protein: < 0.1 g, Carbohydrate: 0.62 g, (malic 100-600, succinic 10-300, phosphoric 10-50, citric 5-20 mg/l) free amino acids: 25-700 mg/l. Periodate oxidation studies indicated that the polysaccharide was branched and contained a high proportion of periodate resistant monosaccharides. The glucurooglucoinannogalactan that has been described formed 2756 of the non- dialyzable material in birch sap. The remaining 73% was a complex mixture from which a small amount of an arabinogalactan has been isolated.
One liter contains roughly 410 mg calcium, 350 mg potassium, 78 mg magnesium, 27 mg manganese and 50 mg phosphorus.

Professor A. Vogel writes in the Finnish Journal Terveyden hoitouutiset that birch contain some ash and is very alkaline and therefore suitable for sour stomach.


Phytochemical Constituents:


17 different amino acids, in particular glutamine and citrulline, Coniferylalcohol, Fumaric acid, Malic acid, Methyl Salicylate, Hormones esterified form as well as Cytokinins. Abscisic acid (ABA), Enzymes. Flavonoids (antioxidant), Hexuronic acid as D-glucuronic, Polysaccharide, contained D-galactose, D-mannose, and D-glucose in a molar ratio of 2:1.4:1 and small amounts of D-glucuronic acid. Periodate oxidation studies indicated that the polysaccharide was branched and contained a high proportion of periodate-resistant monosaccharides. This was confirmed by methylation and hydrolysis which yielded 2, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-methyl-Dglucose (2.0 moles); 2, 4, 6-tri-O-methyl-Dmannose (0.9 mole); 2, 4, 6-tri-O-methyl-Dgalactose (3.8 moles); unidentified tri-O-methyl hexose (1.2 moles); and 3, 5-di-O-methyl-Dmannose (1.8 moles). Sinapylalcohol, Succinic acid.

References on Identified Polysaccharide in the sap of silver birch: NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA OTTAWA (ONTARIO) DIV OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENC ES. Personal Author(s): Urbas, B.; Adams, G. A.; Bishop, C. T.

Comparison of human blood to silver birch sap content

Values ppm Calcium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Potassium Sodium Zinc
Sap 88 0,02 0,04 12,5 21,7 124,8 8,2 2,5
Blood 57 1 510 38 9 1800 1840 6,25

Because it contains sugar, it ferments and becomes acidic and once open must be kept refrigerated to stay fresh. Fermentation results in a birch wine similar to champagne. Birch sap to produce its benefits, must not contain any chemical additives or preservatives. It must be pure and vibrant, so harvested and packaged by craftsmen.
Its benefits are re-mineralization and purification (humoral and cellular). Drainage of some emunctories (liver, kidneys, lungs and skin).

To Complete a Solo Spring Detox will require 5 Liters that will need to be consumed which is 20 bottles of 250ml each, 5 liters = 5,000 ml. A less perturbed body may need only half 125ml daily. Either amount must be taken divided into 3 dosages. If solo use of the sap it is recommended to add; Black Currant – Ribes Nigrum (buds) 10 drops 3 x a day with the sap to amplify its action.

Posology: Consume 250ml bottle daily by dividing it into third and drink undiluted 30 minutes before each meal for 14 to 21 days.
2nd option: If it is used part of a complete PSC Biotherapeutic Program then use only 1 TBSP in the AM batch of the program.


Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa (SAP):


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Polycrest All


Renal – Uro Genital:


Eliminates winter accumulated toxins. Detergent actions on the Kidneys, Bladder. Reduces uric acid and urea.


Dental:


Mouth ulcers.


GI Digestive – Hepatology:


Acid reflux, neutralizes excess acidity and also anti-diarrhea.


Immunology:


Stimulate the immunity especially the immunoglobulins.


Hematology:


Hemochromatosis sap is a blood purifier.


Cardio-Vascular:


Reduce blood cholesterol.


Endocrine System:


cellulite and reduces obesity. With adding Black Currant you will be improving the function of adrenal glands also. Black currant is also a blood purifier.


Dermatology:


Acne, Broken Capillaries, Chloasma, Cellulite, Hair Loss.


Pediatric:


Mothers Milk replacement when in need if stranded in a forest with nothing to drink. Not an ongoing alternative.


Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa (Buds):


Oligo-elements:


Cu, Fe, K, Mg, P.


Vitamins and Minerals:


‘A’, B1, B2, Calcium, C, E.


Phytochemical Constituents:


The buds are balsamic and contain 4-6% of essential oil (Gessner, 1974), and as the drug of USSR. XI Pharmacopoeia (Gemmae Betulae) they are used as diuretic (USSR Pharmacopoeia, 1986. Acacetin, Adenine B-4, Apigenin, Auxins indole acetic acid IAA, Avicularin, Betulin, Betuloventic acid, Brassinosteroids, Cubenol, Cytokinins, Dammarane sapogenins triterpenoids the content is less than that of the flower male catkins, Ellagic acid, Gibberellins, Insoluble Ellagitannins, Furan Fatty acids, 6,9-Guaiadiene, Hyperoside, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Methyl salicylate, Saponins Monoglucosides Protopanaxadiol and Betulafolientriol. Sesquiterpenes: Alloaromadendrene, Alpha-Betulenol, α-Humulene, α-Muurolene, γ-Muurolene, Beta-Betulenol, β-Caryophyllene, α-copaene (12% and 10%), Germacrene D (11% and 18%) and δ-cadinene (11% and 15%). Galactosyl-3 myricetol, Glucuronyl-3 quercetol3 -papyriferic acid, 3β-papyriferic acid (3/β-O-malonyl-12β-O-acetyl-25-hydroxy-20S,24R) epoxydammarane), and pendulic acid (3;3β-O-malonyl-12β-O-acetyl-20(S)-hydroxydammar-24-ene), Pentacosane, Pentahydroxyflavone dimethyl ether, Proanthocyanidins condensed tannins Delphinidin type, Quercitrin, Salicylic acid, Sterols, Tetrahydroxyflavone dimethyl ether, Hemolytic activity of the extracts, which was ascribed to saponins, is caused by the dammarane sapogenins esters instead.

References: Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, 26470-Eskişehir, Turkey K. Hüsnü Can Başer* and Betül Demirci.

References: Betül Demirci1, 2, Dietrich H. Paper1, Fatih Demirci1, 2, K. Hüsnü Can Bas¸er2 andGerhard Franz1,* Advance Access Publication 6 October 2004.
1Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Regensburg. Germany and 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Differences in the composition of the phytochemical constituents between Silver Birch & White Birch buds
although from the same family the Betulaceae.


Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa (buds):

1. 4 natural antihistamine
2. Alpha and Beta Betulenol
3. Betulin
4. Betuloventic acid
5. Cubenol
6. Dammarane sapogenins triterpenoids 2 variety
7. Ellagic acid,
8. Furan Fatty acids
9. Hyperoside
10. Insoluble Ellagitannins
11. Kaempferol
12. 3 -papyriferic acid, 3β-papyriferic acid more diuretic
13. Pendulic acid
14. Pentacosane
15. Proanthocyanidins condensed tannins Delphinidin type
16. Salicylic acid and Methyl salicylate
17. Saponins Monoglucosides Protopanaxadiol and Betulafolientriol.
18. Sesquiterpenes a wider variety


White Birch – Betula Pubescens (buds):

1. Only 2 natural antihistamine
2. β-Betulenal
3. Birkenal
4. Hydrolysable Ellagitannins Pedunculagin the underestimated tannin.
5. Naringenin
6. Sesquiterpenes in particular for the Caryophyllenes, many different derivatives.
7. Tricosane
n-tricosane and n-pentacosane were the active compounds, each significantly reducing parasitoid. Mixing the two buds together will give more power for parasitic infections.

Phenolics are important to plants, because they give mechanical support, contribute to flower and fruit coloring, protect against pathogens and herbivores and they are effective in protecting tissues from damaging UV-light (e.g., Strack 1997).
The alternate name for terpenoids used in the literature is isoprenoids. These compounds are built up of C5 isoprene units, and the nomenclature of terpenoids reflects the number of isoprene units present (Bramley 1997). Terpenoids have diverse functional roles in plants; e.g., as hormones, photosynthetic. In addition, birches are food for several insect herbivores. Antioxidants, antimicrobial effects of birch phenolics.

Study of anti-tumor activity of the monoglucosides protopanaxadiol and betulafolientriol. Antitumor and cytotoxic activity of monoglucosides such as 3-0-panaxadiol (1), 12-0-panaxadiol (2) and 20-0-panaxadiol (3) and 3-0-betulafolientriol (4), 12-0-betulafolientriol (5) and 20-0-betulafolientriol (6). Interferon-inducing properties of birch buds and bark extracts and its effect on experimental infection caused by hepatitis C virus. There is strong evidence for that the extract can decrease the antigenic and infective activity of HCV in both in vitro experiments and HCV-induced infection in mice. The preventive effect of the extract was found in both the HCV-infected cell cultures and the HCV-infected mice. Dammar-24-ene-3 alpha 2 beta, 17 alpha, 20(S)-tetraol is cytotoxic for the Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cells and this effect is additive to cytotoxic activity of anthracycline antibiotic carminomycin in vitro. Antibacterial against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Betulin does reduce cadmium toxicity by promoting the synthesis of certain proteins that protect cells against the exerted toxic effects of cadmium. Betulinic acid inhibited prostaglandin biosynthesis the same magnitude as acetyl salicylic acid.

The essential oils from buds of five Betula species growing in Turkey were investigated by GC-MS. A major component in the essential oils was shown to be 14-hydroxy-beta-caryophyllene (6). The structure of beta-betulenal (12) which was isolated from Betula essential oils was also confirmed by synthesis. Chemical reactions yielded 14-acetoxy-beta-caryophyllene (15), 14-hydroxy-isocaryophyllene (10) and its acetate (14), giving evidence to the natural occurrence in Betula species of the formerly known alpha-betulenol acetate (3), beta-betulenol (2) and beta-betulenol acetate (4), respectively. Compounds 6, 9, 10, 12, and 15 were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and were effective against six bacteria and three fungi are also reported.

References: Betulenols from Betula species are antimicrobial. Demirci B, Başer KH, Ozek T, Demirci F. 2000 Jun; 66(5):490-3. PMID: 10909279 (PubMed).


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Musculoskeletal System:


‘P’ Anti-Inflammatory. Analgesic since it contains; 2 heterosides, betuloside and monotropitoside which release incipient methyl salicylate through enzymatic hydrolysis. Arthrosis diverse, Anti-Rheumatism, Articular pains, Vertebral Colon Epiphysis, Tissue regeneration, Osteoporosis, Stimulates the growth of bones, Back pain, Chronic evolutive Polyarthritis, Parodontitis which is suppuration of the gingival pockets, Osteomyelitis, Fibromyalgia, Tendinitis, and Rickets.


Renal – Uro Genital System:


‘P’ Milder Diuretic than the internal embryonic bark of the White Birch. Stimulates and detoxifies the Kidneys, Albuminuria, Infectious urinary lithiasis, Uricolytic, Nephritis, and Pyelitis. Adult Polycystic Kidneys Disease. The buds hasten the removal of waste products in the urine, block the formation of uric acid and are beneficial for kidney stones and bladder stones, rheumatic conditions, and gout. Prostate associated Dysuriawith the help of Papyriferic acid which is a secondary metabolite of (dammarane-triterpenoids) on sapling twigs causes snowshoe hares (rabbits) to pass more sodium with their urine. This loss of sodium indicates birch defenses, such as papyriferic acid, which are potential hypertension drugs. Only mature trees contain papyriferic acid about 50%. But none is found in the White birch buds B. pubescens.


Oncological Urology:


‘P’ Prostate Dysuria, Acacetin (AC), the flavonoid compounds with same flavone ring structure but different substitution, has been shown to beeffective against human prostate cancer (PCA) LNCaP cell line was established from a metastatic lesion of human prostatic adenocarcinoma and DU145 cells have moderate metastatic potential compared to PC3 cells which have high metastatic potential. Betulonic acid, as an anti-cancer drug has generated considerable interest. The compound has exhibited up to 96% inhibition of prostate tumor growth acid arrested mitosis and induced apoptosis. Synergy of various phytochemicals oncophytoembryonic therapy for prostate cancer.


GI-Digestive, Hepatology – Infectious Disease:


‘P’ Betulin anti-ulcer action of plant found to have a variety of effects on gastric secretion its action on the smooth muscles of the stomach and intestine. Stimulant to the Kupffer cells which play a role processing liver toxins. Decrease Liposome Stability, are Hemolytic, and Inhibit Hepatoma Cell Growth. Kupffer cells biphasic actions are capable of stimulating or inhibiting polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis and that some of these effects may be influenced by the products of ethanol metabolism, suggesting that Kupffer cells may play an important role in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis. Excellent in drug withdrawal. The interferon-inducing activity of birch buds and bark extracts containing betulin and its effect on hepatitis C virus (HCV). Anti-Malaria, Human Papillomavirus, Antibacterial, Anti-staphylococcal.

Mycobacterium smegmatis. Inhibitors of recombinant HIV-1 integrase and HIV-1 replication in cell culture considered more effective than AZT. Pentacosane alkanes preventing the parasitoid from hatching egg in parasitic infestations. Which is the most difficult part of any anti-parasitic therapy is to have an effect on the eggs from hatching. Similar to that of Clove – Syzygium Aromaticum which acts on preventing eggs from hatching.


Hematology – Oncology:


‘P-A’ Triterpenes dammarane cytotoxicity more specifically by two compounds being 3 -papyriferic acid, 3β-papyriferic acid (3 /β-O-malonyl-12β-O-acetyl-25-hydroxy-20S,24R)epoxydammarane), and pendulic acid. Dammarane the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. The endothelial Cells are important in affecting the apparent reduction of toxic oxygen products derived from polymorphonuclear leukocytes attached to their surface. Excellent in the protection of radiation and chemotherapy induce leucopenia. The secondary metabolites of the dammarane are not anticoagulant antiplatelets like that of the White birch flower male catkins.

Protopanaxadiol (saponin-monoglucoside): Antiangiogenic; Antiestrogenic; Anticancer; Fibrosarcoma; Antiinflammatory; Anti-(TNF)-alpha; Anti-Mycobacterium sp; Antiobesity; Antiproliferative; Strongest Antitumor; Apoptotic. Inhibitor LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS expression; down-regulating Akt activity; Axonal and Dendrites regeneration; Chemosensitizer. Betulafolientriol (saponin-monoglucoside): Hemolytic activity; Antimicrobial; Antineoplastic; Antitumor and Cytotoxic activity.


Hepatology Oncology:


‘P’ Alanine amide derivative of betulonic acid decreases the severity of necrotic and degenerative changes in the liver parenchyma, induced by cytostatic polychemotherapy. Betulonic acid exhibited no appreciable hepatoprotective effect under these conditions. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of selected acetylenic derivatives of betulonic acid were investigated using the CCl4-induced hepatitis and carrageenan-induced edema models, respectively. Lupinine esters can exhibit local anesthetic properties. It was concluded, that during postcytostatic period amides of betulonic acid with β-alanine moiety recovery leucocyte level in blood more rapidly, than betulonic acid. So these derivatives of betulinic acid as potential hemoprotective drugs increase leucopenia.


Neurology:


Pediatric. ‘P’ Improves Cognitive functions commonly used for students facing exams. 4 year old and older 2-4 drops per day. Teenagers 5-10 drops per day. Dammarane inhibits beta-amyloid peptide production and methods for treating or preventing a pathological condition, particularly, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Dementia, Amnesia). Protopanaxadiol (saponin-monoglucoside) Axonal and Dendrites regeneration.


Pulmonary – Immunological – Infectious Diseases:


‘P’ Pleurisy, Polyvalent Immunity regenerator, rebalances the proteinogram, raising the globulins and normalizing the resistance to infections in repeated rhinopharyngitis in children with recurrent bronchopulmonary episodes following antibiotic therapy. Antimycobacterial activity of Alpha-Betulenol, Beta-Betulenol in pulmonary tuberculosis. Betulin inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils. Reduced the intensity of systemic anaphylaxis. Exhibits neither immunotoxic nor allergenic effects.


Dermatology:


‘P’ Eczema, Psoriasis, Dermatitis, Erysipelas, Warts, Cellulite. Adding 10 to 20% depending on severity to the total volume of the shampoo of Silver Birch buds extract is very effective for treatment of dandruff and pruritus caused by dry scalp, hair loss, insect repellent.


Endocrine System:


‘A’ Protopanaxadiol (saponin-monoglucoside) Antiobesity.


Cardio Vascular System:


‘A’ Reduces Cholesterol, Congenital Cardiopathy.


OB GYN/ Reproductive System:


‘A’ Fibrocystic breast disease.

Psychiatry:
‘A’ Awareness, Creativity, Elevating, Uplifting.


Environmental Medicine:


‘A’ Betulin does reduce cadmium toxicity by promoting the synthesis of certain proteins that protect cells against the exerted toxic effects of cadmium.


Silver Birch – Betula Verrucosa (Germinated Seed) Psychasthenia:

Please Note: The elaboration on the content of plant growth, immune, and stress hormones from these Embryonic germinating seeds all have the same biological activities as for Rye and Maize. However each seed have other phytochemical present which are unique to that seed specie. Only what apply here are the same phytohormones in the embryonic germinating stage. The hormones also vary depending on the different stages of growth and location within the plant being buds, young shoots, embryonic internal bark, flower, embryonic roots, embryonic germinating seed rootlets, embryonic husks and embryonic fruits.


Oligo-elements:


Fe, K Mg, N, P.


Vitamins and Minerals:


(B-1, B-3, B-6 hormonal vitamins). Calcium, D.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Silver birch tree only found at higher altitudes contrary to White Birch which grows in low altitude. The seeds are shed by the catkins. High level ofAmino acids Importers. Sesquiterpene Abscisic acid (ABA), Anthocyanins, Apigenins, Auxins Indoleacetic acid oxidase activity (IAA), Betulene and Betulenol, Brassinosteroids (BR)Caleosins, (+)-catechin, Soluble condensed tannins, Chlorogenic acid, Chlorophyll catabolites, Cinnamic acid, Cytokinins (CK), Antifungal Diterpene defense compounds, 3,4′-dihydroxypropiophenone, Ellagic acid, Ellagitannin, Emodin, Ergosterol,Ethanolamine, Flavan-3-ol, Flavonoids, Gibberellins (GA), Glutathione, Glycolic acid, and 3-Hydroxypropionic acid,Jasmonates-Jasmonic acid (JA)Methyl jasmonate (MJA)Immunoglobulin, Kaempferol, Lipids phospholipid composition Exporters, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Myricetin, Oleosins, Polyamines (PAs); Putrescine, Spermidine, and Spermine. Phenolics are present in birch seedlings from the beginning of development, Platyphylloside, Proanthocyanidins, Proteins, and Peptides, Quercetin, Salicylic acid (SA), Salidroside, Steroidal triterpenoids, 3-hydroxy-4(Z), 6(Z), 8(Z), 10(Z)-tetraenoic acid, Amino acids; Arginine, Glycine, Lysine, Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan.

In conclusion, placental cotyledons and roots showed a trend of increasing concentrations of phenolic compounds during seedling development. Quercetin glycosides increased with elevated UV-B in the two-month-old seedlings. Flavonol glycosides, Kaempferol, have been shown to accumulate in response to UV-B. Silver Birch which grows in higher plane and altitude are exposed to more radiation than the White Birch lower plane growth making them having to defense more against herbivores which explains the differences amongst the Betulaces. Phenolics that efficiently protect plants against UV-B might be a “universal” response among plant species at least in the first year of growth. Deficiency of nutrients resulted in accumulation of soluble condensed tannins, while responses of other phenolic compounds were variable increases, decreases, or no effect. N deficiency caused changes in many phenolic compounds, while P deficiency affected only condensed tannins in young birch seedlings.

Burst of flavonoid accumulation occurred during seed germination (D. Wiermann 1981 and references therein); perhaps reflecting their function in protecting newly germinated seedlings against UV radiation (Lois 1994).

cotyledon “seed leaf” is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant. Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling. Cotyledons are formed during embryogenesis, along with the root and shoot meristems, and are therefore present in the seed prior to germination.

Brassinosteroids are cell correctors regaining normal growth. Drugs of the Future! The Polycrest Androgen regulator of hyper or hypo conditions. Eliminate androgens and protect against hormone excess.

Most Amazing Phytohormone shown to be effective in a micromolar (one-millionth of a mole per liter) range, despite having minimal effects on normal cells.

• Stimulation or inhibition of growth and development.
• Activation or inhibition of the immune system.
• Regulation of metabolism (the breakdown or synthesis of biological molecules).
• Preparation for a new activity in response to environmental stimuli (such as, fighting, fleeing, mating).
• Preparation for a new phase of life (for example, puberty, caring for offspring, menopause, andropause).
• Control of the reproductive cycle.
• Induced apoptosis.
• Maintain the homeostasis.
• 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor.
• HMG-CoA reductase (or natural “statins”).
• Cytotoxic.
• Carcinomic gene disruptor-nuclear receptor interactions.
• BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). Insensitive-Suppressor-Inhibitor-Regulator.

Brassinosteroid is the Ultimate Human Hormonal Regulator with Biphasic-Bipolar actions.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Psychiatry:


Psychasthenia includes obsessive compulsive reactions and phobias. The two classes of symptoms have independent origins and are best considered separately obsessive. Intellectual Exhaustion. This seed will increase the size of the amygdala gland and blocks the protein synthesis of the long term memory which is involved in phobias.

Compulsive symptoms include irritable and persistent urges to do say, or think about certain things, uncontrollable impulses to touch objects, repeat words, count steps and engage in repetitive movements.

Phobias are abnormal fears, which are appropriate reactions to dangerous situations or objects. Phobias are unreasonable or groundless fears. People who have an exaggerated fear of germs or who are terrified of harmless things such as open places, closed places, or crowds, are suffering from phobias. In Depression, due to its significant adrenal cortico-steroidal stimulation, there appears to be a direct blocking effect on the protein synthesis which occurs in the amygdala when fear occurs. Clinical observation of the successful treatment of phobic patients with Birch Embryonic geminating seed indicates that it has a modulating effect on the Amygdala due to the content of plant stem cells and plant growth hormones especially brassinosteroid. The phytochemical mode of action is yet to be identified totally but regardless, the results are quite impressive in the management of phobias. Possible applications include autism, depression, anxiety attacks, and schizophrenia.


Psychiatry:


Increases Serotonin. Anti Depressant and Stimulant. Birch seed is a stimulant by nature. It stimulates the nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system and the excretory system. Excellent for all types of depression, bi-polar, compulsive, manic disorders, Phobias, ADD, ADHD and will enable the patient to deal with stress. OCD. Plant cells synthesize indole acetic acid IAA from tryptophan and do more than what manmade 5HTP does in a singular supplement. An average of approximately 155 milligrams of tryptophan is present in a 30 drop dose. Increases serotonin. Phenylalanine (Seed contains 11,130 – 11,642 ppm or 10mg per 10 drops): is an essential amino acid that can be converted in the body to tyrosine, which in turn is used to synthesize two important neurotransmitters – dopamine and norepinephrine.Salidroside (adaptogen) is a glycoside compound found in the Silver Birch Embryonic seeds. It is thought to be one of the phytochemical responsible for theantidepressant and anxiolytic biological actions. Neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity. Improvescognitive function. Sedative small doses increased the bioelectrical activity of the brain, presumably by direct effects on the brainstem ascending and descending reticular formation. Enhanced the development of conditioned avoidance reflexes and facilitate learning based on emotionally positive reinforcement. Also stimulated norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and nicotinic cholinergic effects in the central nervous system (CNS). It also enhanced the effects of these neurotransmitters on the brain by increasing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to precursors of dopamine DA and serotonin 5-HT. Salidroside improve the passage of serotonin precursors through the blood-brain barrier. Research has also shown salidroside to help preserve serotonin by inhibiting the activity of COMT (catechol-o-methyl transferase.) Salidroside can increase serotonin by 30% and decrease COMT by up to 60%. Also contains Tyrosine and Tryptophan 3-4 mg per 10 drops which synergistically complement actions for above mentioned biological activities. The posology for the above mentioned conditions may require 10-30 drops 3 x a day.


Endocrine system:


Silver birch embryonic seed sesquiterpene abscisic acid also stimulates the endocrinal glands resulting in more secretions of enzymesandhormonesAuxins, Indole acetic acid IAA Detoxify excess Xenoestrogens. This can play a beneficial role in diseases associated with improper secretion of hormones such as, diabetes, where the enhanced insulin production will help lower the blood sugar level. It helpslosing weight, removal of toxins from the body, and promotes digestion. All seeds contain some Abscisic acid which was shown to be an endogenous stimulator of insulin release from human pancreatic beta cells which it also regenerates with cyclic ADP-ribose as second messenger (Bruzzone S et al., J Biol Chem 2008, 283, 32188). This observation suggests that this lipid phytohormone may be involved in the physiology of insulin release, mainly in its dysregulation under conditions of inflammation. Brassinosteroids are similar to the hormone cortisol to deal with short term environmental stress just like cortisone. Resistance to stress. Anti-inflammatory.


OB-Gyn Reproductive System:


Abscisic acid neutralizes the effect of chorionic gonadotropin, the hormone that protects the fetus from being rejected. Therefore making it an excellent agent in preventing threatened miscarriage. Also good in Endometriosis, Adenomyosis and Uterine fibroids. Potentiates the follicular stage. The Ultimate Hormonal regulator for hypo or hyper hormonal balance due to brassinosteroids.

Brassinosteroids are far more potent than the other hormones: are C27, C28 and C29 steroids are considered to be key hormones in the world of Plant Kingdom. A plant growth and stress hormone is one of the best hormone to treat human male and female infertility-sterility. A study on animals already prove better metabolic and endocrine status and presented an optimal weaning/estrus period (5 days) as well as a better follicular dynamics which all translated into a higher percentage of pregnancies and a higher number of offspring. What achieves this is the combination of Indole-3-acetic acid (auxin), Cytokinin, Gibberellin, and Abscisic acid, Brassinosteroids, Jasmonic acid and Salicylic acid which are all present in the Silver Birch embryonic seed.

References: Anna Maria Szatmari Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Reasearch Center Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary. Volume 51(2): 137-160, 2007.

These brassinosteroids functions at the cellular level i.e. targets to the cell membrane and the cell receptor to its action in the nucleus, where genes are the targets of regulation. The link of hormones with the class of proteins called kinases, which are linked to the phosphate ions, to brassinosteroids. Such signal transduction pathways were established to show the connection between the proteins and steroidssuch were known to be brassinosteroids signaling kinases studies done by Professor Zhi-Yong Wang Department of Plant Biology Carnegie Institution for Science.

Because of the role that the plant hormone, cytokinin, plays in preventing organ death, the researchers, led by biochemist Daniel R. Gallie, reasoned that cytokinin might rescue those flowers, which were destined to abort.

Jasmonic acid or gibberellic acid is a beneficial hormone for treating or preventing vaginal and/or reproductive problems in a female mammal. They increase the expression of P2Y purinergic receptors or estrogen receptors or vascular endothelial growth factor in vaginal or cervical epithelial cells. They facilitate renewal of regressing vaginal mucosa and prevent or improve vaginal dryness.


Sport Medicine:


Brassinosteroids: a plant growth and stress hormone are similar in many respects to animal steroids, but appear to function very differently at the cellular level. In animal cells, steroids use internal receptor molecules to get a response within the cell’s nucleus. In plant cells, the receptors are anchored to the cell membranes’ outside surface. Brassinosteroids are also one of the most important hormones that regulate stature. Also regulates both the size and senescence. Brassinosteroids have been shown to increase cell size indicating that the enlargement may be affected by castasterone levels. “Steroids” are critical for keeping the body running smoothly. Different steroids perform important roles in the body’s reproductive system, boost strength and enhance physical performance, and control the body’s ability to combat allergic reactions. Although steroids are normally produced inside the human body, sometimes the quantities are insufficient or their production mechanisms are flawed. In these cases, steroids manufactured outside of the body can be administered to produce desired physiological effects.

Note:’ That, the isolation and manipulation of brassinosteroids BRs may create unexpected toxins as byproducts of the modified p450 genes. Here we stay far away from the adulteration or manipulation of modified phytochemicals.


GI Digestive Hepatology:


Antiinflammatory, Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s, The Indole-acetic acid in auxins is what helps tissue regeneration. Abscisic acid cause DNA damage in the bacteria of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). Cytokinins improve internal plant digestion systems utilizing nutrients 20 to 30% better. They also help correct nutrient deficiencies. In short, they reverse conditions that many harsh fertilizers and chemicals have created. Polyamine putrescine supplementation may be beneficial to the growth of mucosal development of the small intestine. The intestinal epithelium has one of the highest cell turnover rates and therefore one of the highest rates of metabolic activity in the body. Polyamine content of an organ is associated with metabolic activity.


Musculoskeletal System:


Indole-acetic acid in auxins are natural anti-inflammatory true NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory agent). Anti Rheumatic & Anti Arthritic: Since it stimulates circulatory system and improves circulation, thus it is very helpful in giving relief in diseases associated with improper circulation such as edema (swelling), rheumatism, arthritis etc. Detoxifies the blood. Analgesic & Anti Spasmodic: It is helpful in reducing joints pain, muscles aches, headache, toothache etc. Indole Acetic acid is an Anti-Myalgias, Anti spasmodic and relieves cramps. The combination ofMalic acid from Crab apple buds with Indole acetic acid from the Silver Birch embryonic seeds makes it a novel phytochemical synergy for the effective management of any types of myalgias. To that combo you can create a triad with the following: Mountain Pine buds (for its profenanalgesic action-chondrocytes stimulation if in need of this action), White willow buds (for its salicylic acidcontent being an NSAIDs and immune stimulant). Betulinic acid concentrate when in need of a oncological treatment association with myalgias but not for bone pain.


Infectious Disease-Immunology:


Abscisic acid is also involved in the stimulation of human granulocytes with cyclic ADP-ribose as second messenger (Bruzzone S et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007, 104, 5759). And possibly other immune cell types, by activating chemokinesis. It also stimulates phagocytosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (which help kill pathogens) and nitric oxide (another cytokine). Immune system regulation by cytokines. Cytokinins are immunomodulating agents
(interleukins, interferons, etc.). Multiple sclerosis, Fibromyalgias, Allergies, Asthma.

One form of plant immunity against pathogens involves a rapid host programmed cell death at the site of infection accompanied by theactivation of local and systemic resistance to pathogens, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Reversal of an immunity associated plant cell death program by the growth regulator auxin. Plant growth regulator auxin can inhibit the cell death elicited by a purified proteinaceous hypersensitive response (HR) elicitor. The inhibition affects “reporters of immune response” which is “immune response-related to signaling pathways” NFκB, PKC/Ca++, Type 1 Interferons, Interferon Gamma, MAPK/ERK, MAPK/JNK, TGFβ, cAMP/PKA, C/EBP, Notch.

Brassinosteroids HMG-CoA reductase (or natural “statins”) which have shown promise in treating a mouse model of Multiple Sclerosis, an inflammatory autoimmune disease. Brassinosteroids have immuno-modulating effects normalizing an over-reactive antibody response as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Their effects on immune system balance are thought to be beneficial in treatment ofallergies and other autoimmune conditions. The scope of antiviral activity of these brassinosteroids against RNA and DNA viruses a selective class of virus inhibitors.

References: Authors: Wachsman M.B.1; Ramirez J.A.1; Talarico L.B.1; Galagovsky L.R.1; Coto C.E.1 Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry – Anti-Infective Agents, Volume 3, Number 2, June 2004 , pp. 163-179(17).

Jasmonates-Jasmonic acid (JA), Methyl jasmonate (MJA) are produced from fatty acids and seem to promote the production of defense proteins that are used to fend off invading organisms. A plant stress and immune hormone that belongs to the jasmonate family. It is biosynthesized from linolenic acid by the octadecanoid pathway. It stimulates wound response and protects against dehydration. Antibacterial and Antifungal agents. Methyl jasmonate causes induction of a proteinase inhibitor that accumulates at low concentrations in response to wounding or pathogenic attacks. Salidroside possesses antiviral activities against coxsackievirus CVB3 and it may represent a potential therapeutic agent for viral myocarditis protective effects on the anoxia/reoxygenation damages upon myocardium.


Hematology Oncology:


Abscisic acid suppress the proliferation and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. Stimulation of enzymes by Indoles, which are found inAuxins, stimulate enzymes that make estrogen less effective and could reduce the risk for breast cancer. Indoles which detoxifies excess xenoestrogens. Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) in combination with the plant enzyme peroxidase produced toxic by-products that destroyed cancerous tumors while leaving the rest of the body’s tissues unscathed. The coordination between auxins and cytokinins allows for a balance of growth.

Cytokinins inhibit, while auxins stimulate.

Anticancer and antiproliferative activity of natural brassinosteroids cytotoxic provide the first evidence that natural BRs can inhibit the growth, at micromolar concentrations, of several human cancer cell lines without affecting the growth of normal cells. Therefore, these plant hormones are promising leads for potential anticancer drugs.

In humans, multiple drug resistance MDR proteins protect cells from toxins and are the proteins responsible for removing chemotherapy drugs from the cells. To bypass MDR proteins, chemotherapy dose not need to be high, causing the severe side effects associated with the treatment.So you can effectively use auxin plant growth hormone extract to bypass MDR and improves the effectiveness of chemotherapy. This effective hormone will reduced the amount of chemotherapy needed to achieve superior results. Betulenol and Betulene (triterpenes):Mesothelioma cancer specific also because the embryonic seed also contains Salicylic acid which both synergistically work on asbestose detoxification. Brassinosteroids are cell correctors regaining normal growth and regulatory effects by secondary metabolites on functional domains of proteins in maintenance of homeostasis. Alter human P450 activity which is involved in the synthesis of toxic chemical in the in humans and plants involved in that chemical’s metabolism and elimination when it is ingested and seen as a noxious foreign compound.

Cytokinins stimulate cell division and inhibit senescence. Cytokinins can slow down the aging because they are inhibiting protein breakdown, by stimulating RNA and protein synthesis. Cytokinins are also known as anti-aging hormones. When cytokinins are added to the culture medium, cells don’t act their age. The normal sequence of aging slows down considerably. Cells do not undergo the severe degenerative changes that ordinarily occur. Although the total lifespan of human cells is not increased much, the cells remain significantly more youthful and functional throughout their lifetime. For example, treated cells after they have reached the final stage of their lifespan and no longer divide, look and function like untreated cells half their age. Treated cells never undergo the severe degenerative changes experienced by untreated cells. In all respects, their youth is extended into old age. In regulating cell growth, cytokinins also prevent mistakes that may lead to the development of cancer. Normal cells are kept healthy while cancerous cells are programmed to die, preventing them from growing and spreading.

Gibberellins (GAs): are a group of diterpenoid acids that stimulates RNA and protein synthesis. Drainage is characterized as detoxification by means of organ stimulation, tissue excitation & toxins elimination which is the actions that gibberellin performs. Also stimulates enzyme production (a-amylase). Gibberellin decreased anthocyanin production. Gibberellins accelerate healing by stimulating cell replication.

Both blood cancers and solid tumors seem to be responsive to the jasmonate compound, known also as methyl jasmonate. Increases the amount of paclitaxel (Taxol) produced. MJ is probably the most potent anti-cancer and anti-leukemia agent known to man. And it is completely non-toxic to normal cells. A scientific recent study published shows that MJ kills prostate cancer cells via the inactivation of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Products of the 5-LOX gene are involved in the growth of all cancers. Prostate cancer cells appear to be extremely sensitive to the inhibition of the 5-LOX enzyme. As this study shows, 5-LOX inhibitors can induce apoptosis/necrosis in extremely malignant prostate cancer cells within hours. Jasmonates are involved in an apoptotic response to plant stress, the ability of jasmonates to suppress replication of mammalian cancer cell lines is of clinical importance. The cytotoxicity of jasmonates was compared to that of the plant stress hormone sodium salicylate, which is also known to be cytotoxic to mammalian cancer cells. Polyamines (PAs): e.g. putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, constitute a group of cell components that are important in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell differentiation. There is also evidence suggesting a role for polyamines in programmed cell death. It is now clear that the polyamines play important roles in a number of cellular processes such as replication, transcription, and translation. Presumably these roles are exerted by specific interactions that can only be mediated by the cationic polyamines with their characteristic, unique, and flexible charge distributions. Salidroside Antitumor; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic. Improves parameters of leukocyte integrines and T-cell immunity but not significantly.


Neurological Nervous System:


Migraines associated with fibromyalgia. With time, six months to one year will regrow the size of the amygdala which is shrunk in size from people with long standing anxiety and panic attack. I f the amygdala is normal in size then we can deal with stress. Auxin agonize the receptor’s ubiquitin ligase activity by promoting protein-protein interaction rather than disrupting the interaction. Scientists learned that auxin is a sort of “molecular glue” that improves the ability of TIR1 to bind to its peptide target. In the absence of auxin, TIR1 does not bind to its target as tightly. Many human diseases such as cancer and Parkinson’s disease are associated with defective ubiquitin ligases, whose activities might be restorable by small molecules such as auxin.


Cardiovascular System:


Brassinosteroids are HMG-CoA reductase (or natural “statins”). Cardiovascular diseases keeping cells younger and Antinflammatory. Brassinosteroids are used successfully and safely for lowering plasma cholesterol and vital functions like lipid hormones.


Renal Uro Genital – Dermatology:


Androgen induced renal hypertension. Brassinosteroids reducing several mammalian steroids with a 3-oxo,D4,5 structure including testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone. These receptors achieve their physiological functions by binding to specific DNA sequences termed hormone response elements, thereby activating or suppressing target gene expression in a ligand-dependent manner.Novel steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor for the prostate and scalp baldness catalyzes the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.

Androgen action in mammals can be regulated at the pre-receptor level by the intracellular formation and degradation of potent androgens, such as 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). In androgen target tissues (e.g. prostate), 5α-DHT is formed from circulating testosterone by the action of the type 2 steroid 5α-reductase (5α-R) and its action is terminated by the action of a reductive 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) which forms the weak androgen 3α-androstanediol. Oxidative 3α-HSD isoforms, however, can provide an alternative source of potent androgens by converting 3α-androstanediol to 5α-DHT.

Working in concert, 5α-Rs and 3α-HSDs determine the amount and the type of androgen available for the androgen receptor and hence affect transcription of genes under androgen control. In peripheral tissues (e.g. liver), type 1 5α-R and reductive 3α-HSD isoforms work consecutively toeliminate androgens and protect against hormone excess. Thus, different 5α-R and 3α-HSD isoforms participate in distinct anabolic and catabolic processes and their important roles in androgen action render them drug targets for the treatment of androgen-dependent diseases.

Serum androgens in individuals affected by myotonic dystrophy are known to be lower on average than in normal controls. Despite that these females developed diseases that are androgen dependent, including acne, hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia and keratosis pilaris. These cases support the hypothesis that the peripheral response to androgens rather than absolute circulating levels of androgensis important in androgen-dependent conditions.

References: 1997 by THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USA 0027-8424y97y943554-6. References: Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 15, Issue 1, Pages 79-94 Elsevier News.


Dermatology (continued):


When cytokinins are applied to the skin, they stimulate cell division of connective tissue which replaces older, damaged tissue with functionally younger tissue. The result is that on the surface of the skin, wrinkles tend to flatten out. Dry, aging skin is replaced with smoother, softer skin. Cytokinins modulates (directly or indirectly) catalase activity. Kinetin is a naturally occurring cytokinin first isolated in plants and found in the body’s own DNA. The cytokinin substance is an anti-oxidant protector against free radicals that improves the skin’s natural moisture barrier and visibly reduces wrinkles. Zeatin the first naturally-occurring cytokinin to be isolated. generally a “juvenile hormone” = keeps things young. Birch seed is an excellent germicide and insecticide, mainly due to presence of Salicylic Acid and Methyl Salicylate content. These two components are excellent cures for eczema, ring worm and other skin diseases and infections. A regular external application (in low dosages) effectively reduces wrinkles and sagginess of the skin and the muscles. Bleached the brown liver spots but not superior to betulinic acid concentrate. Its astringent property strengthens gums, hair. Anti Septic & Disinfectant: These are the two of the most important properties of Birch seed for topical use. They also protect the skin from bacterial and fungal infections. Jasmonates stimulate proliferation of fibroblasts, or keratinocytes and/or stimulate the production of collagen by fibroblasts.

References: Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Noskowskiego 12, 61-704 Poznan, Poland Senetek PLC, 851 Latour Court, Suite A, Napa, CA 94588, USA. Department of Molecular Biology, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark 30 May 2006.