Click to purchase Wheatgrass – Triticum Aestivum 

Part Used: 

young shoots

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

GENUS: Agropyron, Poaceae Botanically, there are more than 30,000 varieties of wheat which fall into six major classes that are grown in the United States. The six classes are based on planting and harvesting dates, as well as hardness, color and shape of kernels. The classes are hard red spring, hard red winter, soft red winter, hard white wheat, soft white wheat and durum. Hard wheat’s are higher in protein and gluten and are therefore usually used for yeast breads. Has anyone ever noticed that people in this world eat so many quantities of wheat (normally in highly processed form and lifeless, enzymeless forms like breads, bagels, donuts, pizza, cookies, and desserts?) Do they realize that the near nutritional benefit and healing power of wheat is hidden in the germinating embryonic seed itself?

In layman’s terms: Wheat flour (or white flour, enriched flour, etc.) is the when the whole wheat is harvested, all nutrients removed, then a few added back in. Basically wheat flour is white flour. Whole Wheat is just what it says… the whole wheat with all the nutrients left in. If you’re looking for whole grains, be sure to read the nutrition facts labels. The packaging can be deceiving. “Multi-grain”, for instance, almost always means the first ingredient will be white flour, which means that’s the main ingredient. So unless it says “100% whole grain”, it probably isn’t, but again… read the labels.

Wheat grass is simply a young green wheat plant harvested before it develops kernels (berries) and transforms into golden stalks of grain. As a young plant, wheat grass actually resembles a leafy green vegetable more than a cereal grain.
Wheat grass is gluten-free, refers to the young grass of the common wheat plant, Triticum Aestivum, which is freshly picked in the embryonic stage of growth. Wheat grass the pulped shoots of grasses from the genus Agropyron is a relative of wheat. The extract is made from germinated certified organic sprung wheat. It contains all the nutrients that are found in the germinated seed. Both provide a complete protein with about 30 enzymes, and it is about 70% crude chlorophyll, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. It does contain more nutrients than other green plants. Wheatgrass health benefits range from providing supplemental nutrition to having unique curative properties. The consumption of wheatgrass in the Western world began in the 1930s as a result of experiments by Charles F. Schnabel and his attempts to popularize the plant.

Schnabel, an agricultural chemist, conducted his first experiments with young grasses in 1930, when he used fresh cut grass in an attempt to nurse dying hens back to health. The hens not only recovered, but they produced eggs at a higher rate than healthy hens. Encouraged by his results, he began drying and powdering grass for his family and neighbors to supplement their diets. The following year, Schnabel reproduced his experiment and achieved the same results. Hens consuming rations supplemented with grass doubled their egg production. Schnabel started promoting his discovery to feed mills, chemists and the food industry. Two large corporations, Quaker Oats and American Dairies Inc., invested millions of dollars in further research, development and production of products for animals and humans. By 1940, cans of Schnabel’s powdered grass were on sale in major drug stores throughout the United States and Canada.

References: Meyerowitz, Steve (April 1999). “Nutrition in Grass”. Wheatgrass Nature’s Finest Medicine: The Complete Guide to Using Grass Foods & Juices to Revitalize Your Health (6th Edition ed.). Book Publishing Company. pp. 53. ISBN 1878736973. Schnabel’s research was conducted with wheatgrass grown outdoors in Kansas. His wheatgrass required 200 days of slow growth, through the winter and early spring, when it was harvested at the jointing or reproductive stage. It was at this stage that the plant reached its peak nutritional potential; after jointing, concentrations of chlorophyll, protein, and vitamin decline sharply.

References: Murphy, Sean (2002-10-13). “Wheat grass, healthy for the body and the bank account”. ABC Landline.

There are an abundance of misconceptions and unwarranted claims about wheat grass and its health properties and benefits. These claims range from its effectiveness on a person’s general well being to its usefulness in heavy metal detoxification and cancer prevention, although there is some evidence in support of the beneficial effects of the chlorophyll contained in wheatgrass in the human diet. Ann Wigmore, whom was a personal acquaintance, was a proponent of its use but also subscribed to most of the popular misconceptions about wheatgrass. Many of the popular rumors that were founded in scientific misinformation did a great disservice to those trying to harness the power of wheat grass.

One such rumor, which superseded her death in 1994, claimed that wheat grass had to be cut from the growing plant and had to be consumed less than three hours from the time it was juiced. There is no scientific evidence that chlorophyll is the active compound responsible for wheat grass’s curative powers. Instead, Abscisic Acid (AB) is the most important phytohormone in wheat grass and is only present in minute amounts when it is consumed from a fresh plant and immediately juiced. It is common knowledge in both botanical chemistry and biology that abscisic acid is barely present in developing young plants because it inhibits growth and is a plant stress hormone. The stress phytohormone, abscisic acid (ABA) is 40 times more potent 4 hours after cutting the wheatgrass than it is at the time of cutting. She called chlorophyll “the life blood of the planet.” Wigmore believed that cooking foods “killed” them because this deactivates their enzymes. She held that the moment the “sacred” 7.4 acid-alkaline balance (the same as human blood) is “killed” that its effectiveness would be reduced. The proof is in fact that grass feed-eating animals are not spared from cancer, despite their large intake of fresh chlorophyll, seems to have been lost on a philosophy rather than a scientific understanding based on the composition if its phytochemical constituents. Dear Ann, may you rest in peace I have tried to teach you that you were mistaken but you were dead sure that it was the chlorophyll. Knowing what was in wheatgrass that actually had more health benefits and that it should only be consumed at least 4 hours after it is freshly cut so that the abscisic acid which increases from the cutting in stress response action and peaks phytochemical potential at about 4 hours and be most concentrated.

Hopefully this will finally put an end to the nonsense and myths there are about this plant.

In order to fully extract all of the beneficial phytochemicals in wheatgrass it has to be macerated in at least 60% alcohol and glycerin. Our body cannot extract those active beneficial phytochemicals by drinking the juice. Drinking its fresh juice only gives you the chlorophyll content of the plant and only serves as a flushing elimination effect. Four pounds in weight of wheat grass is needed in order to make a one ounce tincture which is totally more active than that of just wheat grass juice.
Wheat grass proponent Schnabel claimed in the 1940s that “fifteen pounds of wheatgrass is equal in overall nutritional value to 350 pounds of ordinary garden vegetables”, a ratio of 1:23. As the chlorophyll molecule is structurally similar to hemoglobin, it has been argued that wheatgrass helps blood flow, digestion and general detoxification of the body. The detoxification effect occurs not because of the chlorophyll but due to its phytohormones and also due to its content of the phytochelatin enzyme synthase. Chlorophyll is a carbohydrate, thus its makeup is overwhelmingly carbon and hydrogen. The molecule has as many as 127 hydrogen and carbon atoms, but only 5 or 6 atoms of oxygen, 4 of nitrogen, and one lonely magnesium atom. Wheatgrass is thought to be superior to other vegetables in its content of Vitamin B12, a vital nutrient, though the vitamin is not contained within wheatgrass but is a byproduct of the microorganisms living on it. The only vitamins present in wheatgrass are 15% of your daily allowance of Vitamin C, and 20% of iron. The rest of the vitamins and minerals, “elusive B12” included? Zeros. We know that if you need iron, you cannot just take magnesium and expect your body to convert it like an alchemist would convert lead into gold.

Certain elements that help build the blood (such as iron, calcium, vitamin C, folic acid, etc.) are found abundantly in chlorophyll-containing foods such as green vegetables, so it’s easy to understand that these foods can have some benefits. But the claim that chlorophyll can be converted into hemoglobin is simply not so nor is it supported by science. Chlorophyll is not a necessary nutrient in human nutrition in fact, chlorophyll cannot “detoxify the body” since it is not absorbable and because of this action it can effectively assist in the flushing and expelling of such toxins thru the bowel and kidneys. Those toxins which have been detoxified by the phytochemicals and or phytohormones present in embryonic wheat grass.

Chlorophyll prevents the re-absorption of the released toxins and ensures the total removal out of the body. Effective detoxification is a complex mechanism and not a simple one at that. You must first identify the body burden of such toxins, then use the appropriate plant agents that have proven effective in the release, pooling or chelation of such known toxins and then their job is done. Now you need to insure that such chelated, or released or pooled toxins as been effectively eliminated out of the body and not free circulating which is in no way any better and might actually be more dangerous by depositing itself where it came from or imbedding itself elsewhere in the body.

An enzyme is essentially a protein that helps make a specific chemical reaction occur. Food enzymes are those found in foods, and their purpose is to carry out the chemical reactions necessary for the existence and life of the plant itself. Enzymes are also responsible for many chemical reactions including digesting food, building bones repairing unhealthy tissues, purifying blood and aiding in detoxification. Enzymes have even shown promise with many degenerative diseases by reducing inflammation and protecting against further damage. There are three types of enzymes. Dietary, Digestive and Metabolic enzymes.

Dr. Edward Howell, M.D., who studied enzymes and health for more than 50 years, says: “Without the Life energy of enzymes, we would be nothing more than a pile of Lifeless chemical substances — vitamins, minerals, water and proteins. In both maintaining health and in healing, enzymes and only enzymes do the actual work. They are what we call in metabolism, the body’s natural life force.”

The cellular energy is the very core of every enzyme’s active function. In other words, they are electro magnetically charged, which is separate and distinct from caloric energy, released from food by enzymatic action. Enzymes are involved in sight, thought, touch, hearing, digestion of our foods, the way we age and even moving our limbs. If enzymes were lost, all the functions of our body would fail, including that of our immunity. Trace elements serve as structural components of metalloenzymes. Upon removal of the trace element or lack of adequate trace mineral levels the enzyme activity is lost. There are numerous metalloenzymes that are required for a wide range of metabolic activities such as energy production, protein digestion, cell replication, antioxidant activity and wound healing.

Most of these plant enzymes are more often than not destroyed by the stomach acids upon ingestion by humans. Even if they could somehow survive the acidity in the stomach, these enzymes were designed for the plant. They helped the plant to grow, and would continue to help the plant carry out its life cycle. Most plant enzymes play no part in the human digestive process. But they are exception like in the case of the plant enzymes called “Ficin from Fig buds”, now you have a plant digestive enzyme which neutralizes too much acids and that is twenty times more powerful than that of papain and will greatly assist human protein digestion. The plant enzymes found in wheatgrass are in no way special. Lettuce and other vegetables contain the very same enzymes. What make Wheat/Grass special are its phytochemicals and phytohormones which have a biological activity to detoxify. Its chlorophyll content is an important adjuvant in the process mechanism of a total detoxification and not by its isolation but its synergy in the process.

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the velocities of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, called the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy (Ea‡) for a reaction, thus dramatically increasing the rate of the reaction. Most enzyme reaction rates are millions of times faster than those of comparable un-catalyzed reactions. As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzymes are known to catalyze about 4,000 biochemical reactions. A few RNA molecules called ribozymes also catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome. Synthetic molecules called artificial enzymes also display enzyme-like catalysis.

Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity; activators are molecules that increase activity. Many drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. Activity is also affected by temperature, chemical environment (e.g., pH), and the concentration of substrate. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. In addition, some household products use enzymes to speed up biochemical reactions (e.g., enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein or fat stains on clothes; enzymes in meat tenderizers break down proteins, making the meat easier to masticate).

Minerals function as coenzymes, enabling the body to perform functions like energy production, growth and healing. Because all enzyme activity involves minerals, they are essential to the proper utilization of vitamins and their nutrients. Minerals are inorganic elements, which means that they are composed of only one atom and none of them contain carbon. Approximately five percent of every cell is made up of minerals; these minerals support the function and structure of the cells. Minerals, just like vitamins are coenzymes, and are essential to the activation of enzymes. Nutritionists classify the minerals that are essential to life as either major minerals or trace elements. Major minerals are needed in larger amounts (hundreds of milligrams per day) and trace elements are required in much smaller amounts (typically micrograms). As minerals are required for nearly every bodily function, it is of the utmost importance to get the proper amount of minerals for two reasons: to prevent disease state and to maintain normal body function. Many nutritionists and researchers believe that the farm soils in the United States, as well as many other regions of the world are considerably depleted of minerals compared to what they had merely 100 years ago. Therefore, supplementation of minerals is a logical option for people seeking optimal health. But this is very difficult to evaluate when doing blood test serum evaluation of mineral content it only reflects what is free circulating and when readings are below normal the tendency is to always supplements but is this accurate and is it safe?

Those lab results may not accurately report of a low mineral deficiency? But due to the body’s inability to utilize properly these minerals causing them to get trap into an encapsulation mass of mineral(s). By giving diluted form of these trace element-minerals or oligo-elements which do not amount into milligrams, these trace-oligo-elements mineral(s) in informative dosages (small amount) have many more benefits because of their ability to osmosis penetrate such encapsulation and can de-sequestrate (free again) such mineral entrapment and release it so that it becomes once more bioavailable for the body to re-utilizing it. By opting to do so you will more likely than not permanently correct enzyme deficiencies productions by working at the root of the problem restoring the biochemistry, physiology, and homeostasis. Most importantly you will prevent excess toxic mineral build up which can results if the body ability to get rid of the excess does not occur can result in what most cancer tumors are made off excess minerals toxicity and of course other substances such has toxins and excess hormones because we do live in a sea of estrogen.

In my opinion there is a very grave danger going on in this world caused by well intended practitioners but who prescribe lots of man-made so called natural supplements. Which are no longer natural when they have been altered-process? It is not too difficult to deduct that if you are in such a need of so many supplements then you must be having a digestive problem in the first place. How his someone with digestive problems fair on being given mega dose of man-made vitamins and minerals swallowing all of these huge pills? No chewing, no sipping – lets swallow all of these huge rocks (capusles) 20 or more of them, and swallow them all once! In the care of such programs were never instructed to take them slowly one at a time with one minute apart at least. Also should be taken with adequate fluids, which further impair the digestion. I strongly believe that the chronic use of vitamins, minerals, supplements, or any pills beyond the basic true necessity is the cause of so many more reported cases of chronic gastritis sufferers caused by these supplements. The toxicity that many of these unwarranted supplements cause when not really needed. Unless someone is in good physical health and that their liver, kidneys and digestive system is in good working order then they may have the ability to get rid of any unneeded excess from these supplements. Also, the use of isolated mega milligram amounts of a certain phytochemical supplementation which has lost its synergy and causing all sorts of imbalances and side effects. I am very opposed to manmade products in the first place. Contrary to non manmade eg. Black Currant buds which contains per 10 drops 1,000mg of vitamin C in liquid form 100% totally bio-absorbable, contrary to a man made vitamins C which you will excrete 90% of it., The same goes with the Multi-Vitamins and Multi Minerals the manufacturer of these appears on the television commercials and proclaim that “We Thought of Everything” – who, for one, combines incompatible ingredient mixed together that either competes for absorption or cancel each other? The second point which is even more ludicrous is that they have never met me? These companies know nothing of the people who buy their supplements, but somehow know what I should be taking…based on what? Monkey see, monkey do, one pill fits all! That is his prolyphic, not to mind you that hopefully our body remains having the ability to get rid of the unwanted waste, unneeded excess that non custom made nutritional programs are. Otherwise, it is toxic to the body to take supplements we do not need. Yet another prescription for false hope and risk to become extremely toxic.

Since I am on this subject, please allow me to indulge in one more subject matter concerning “Natural versus Synthetic”? I am a lot more concerned that things should be “non toxic” be that it is Natural or Synthetic. There are plenty of natural products that can kill you – so we want to use non toxic because there is already enough self and non-self exposures to so many toxic matters including intellectual pollution.


B, Cu, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Si, Su, Zn.

Vitamins and Minerals:

Per 30ml contains: A, (B-1, B-3, B-6 hormonal vitamins), B-2, B-5, Vitamin B12, 0.30 mcg, Biotin, Beta-carotene 120 IU, C 1 mg, Calcium 7.2 mg, Choline, D, Vitamin E 880 mcg, Folacin, Inositol, Iron 0.66 mg, K 42mg, Magnesium, 8 mg.

Phytochemical Constituents:

High level of Amino acids ImportersSesquiterpene Abscisic acid (AB), Adenine B-4, Allantoin, Aleurone, Alpha Amyrin,-amylase and -amylase, Apigenin, Asparagine Synthesase, Aspartic acid, Auxins, Indoleacetic acid oxidase activity (IAA), Benzaldehyde, Benzoxazinone,Beta Amyrin, Beta-carotene, Betaine, β-cryptoxanthin, β-sitosterolBrassinosteroidsCaffeic acid, Caleosins, Campesterol, (+)-catechin, Catalase, Cephalin (hemostat), Chlorogenic acid, Chlorophyll catabolites, Citrinin, Antioxidant enzyme Cytochrome oxidase a specific respiratory enzyme, Cytokinins in the tips, Diazepam, Antifungal Diterpene defense compounds, 3,4′-dihydroxypropiophenone, Emodin, Ergosterol, Many Fiber, Flavonoid glycosides, Ferulic acid, Fructose, -amino butylic acid (GABA), Gentisic acidGibberellins, Glucose,Glutathione, Glycerin (naturally occurring), ImmunoglobulinJasmonates-Jasmonic acidLauric acid, Ligand, Lecithin, Lignoceric acid, Linoleic acid, Lipase, Lipids phospholipid composition Exporters, Lutein, Mannose, Meristems PSCMyristic acid, Myricitrin, Nitrosamines, O-Coumaric acidO-glycosylflavone 5,7-dihydroxy-3,4,5-trimethoxyflavone-7-O-rutinoside, Oleic acid, Oleosins, Palmitic acid, Palmitoleic acid, P-Coumaric acid, High levels of total identified Phenolic acids in the shoots are generally strongly allelopathic, P-Hydroxy-Benzoic acid, Phylloquinone (antihemorrhagic), Phytic acid, Polyamines, Polysaccharides chiefly arabinoxylans, Proanthocyanidins, Proteins, andPeptides, Protocatechuic acid, Quercetin, Ribonuclease, Salicylates, Salicylic acid (SA), The antioxidant enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Sinapic acid, Stearic acid, Syringic acid, Tricin, Trigonelline, Uricase, Vanillic acid, Water, Xylose, Zeaxanthin. Amino acids; Arginine, Cysteine,Glutamic acid, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Proline, Serine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine.

Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:

Infectious Diseases:

‘P’ Biofilms chronic gram positive bacterial infection, xylanase inhibitor. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Musculoskeletal System:

‘P’ Arthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, Bone or joint pain, Fibromyalgia. For soft tissue muscle, nerve renewal. Rickets is a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets (cases of severe diarrhea and vomiting may be the cause of the deficiency). For children who have been chelated with calcium EDTA for heavy metals and have been strip and depleted of so many other essential minerals and vitamins and present themselves with rickets like symptoms. Early onset osteoporosis or osteopenia. Reduce athletic recovery time (soreness and injuries), and increase abilities.

Cardio Vascular System:

‘P’ Fibrinolytic activity, and Angiotensin converting enzyme ACE inhibitor activity. Lowers LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, a natural statin due to its brassinosteroids and polyphenol oxidase content, prevents strokes. Prevents the adhesion of plaque formation to the arteries. Reduced blood pressure.

OBGYN/Reproductive System:

‘A’ Female sterility, spontaneous miscarriages.

Gi-Digestive Hepatology:

‘P’ Biofilms perforation of chronic gram positive bacterial and mycosal Candida infections, Xylanase inhibitor. Ectopeptidases dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV /CD26) and aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13), which are thought to a role in the control of immune activation and in regulating cellular communication by hydrolyzing bioactive polypeptides. Since inhibitors of both enzymes were shown to be effective in limiting immune activation processes in vitro as well as in vivo, they emerged as new drug candidates for the treatment of diseases associated with an imbalanced T cell response, such as IBD. The putative role of DPIV, APN and related enzymes in the regulation of immune and non-immune processes in inflammatory bowel diseases, on possible benefits from peptidase inhibitor therapy in these diseases as well on the gaps of knowledge in this field.

Regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival. Prevents constipation and improves digestion. Combats colon cancer. Contrary to the flour does not contain gluten and very beneficial in Celiac disease inhibits immune-mediated toxic reaction that causes damage to the small intestine and does not allow food to be properly absorbed. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Irritable bowel syndrome IBS, Diverticulosis, recurring bloating, gas, or abdominal pain, Gall bladder malfunction. Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, obesity, and pouchitis have been correlated with large-scale imbalances in the gastrointestinal microbiota, or ‘dysbiosis’, demonstrating the importance of commensal microorganisms in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Arrest growth and development of unfriendly bacteria. It acts to produce an unfavorable hostile environment for bacterial growth, rather than by any direct action upon the bacteria themselves. Cleanse the liver, remove heavy metals.


‘P’ Bone loss. Apthous ulcers of the mouth. Tooth discoloration or loss of enamel. Positive effects on the tooth decay.

Neurological/Nervous System:

Neuromuscular symptoms, e.g. hyperexcitability. Peripheral Neuropathy. Sciatica. It effectively neutralized obnoxious odors from perspiration due to physical exercise, and nervousness.

Immunological System:

‘P’ Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Stimulates WBC’s.


‘P’ Child abuse

Endocrine System:

‘A’ Juvenile Diabetes type 1, Adult onset Diabetes type 2, pre diabetic conditions, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, Pancreatic insufficiency. Delayed growth or onset of puberty. Infertility male & female. Balancing the body weight obesity or under weight. The process of germination, increasing the rate of metabolism. Inhibitor of Carbohydrate absorption.

Dermatology Allergy:

‘P’ Dermatitis Herpetiformis Helps in rejuvenating the body cells and tissues. Itching and burning of the rectum, ivy poisoning, weeping and dry eczema, and even in conditions caused by insect bites or infection. Helps in maintaining shine on the skin and reduces dark circles under the eyes.

Hematology Oncology:

‘P’ Iron deficiency Anemia, Vitamin K deficiency associated with risk for hemorrhaging. Thalassaemia. Stimulates red blood cells production. Colon cancer dues to its abscisic acid and auxins content. Has a lot of phytic acid, a substance with antioxidant properties that may stop tumors. Prevents aging.


‘A’ Sinus congestion. Effective in neutralizing obnoxious odors in the mouth from food, beverages, tobacco, and metabolic changes (halitosis).


‘P’ Trauma of all sorts.

Topical application: P Whenever you have an ache, simply, your body is lacking food/energy. Triticum Aestivum topical use is an airborne food/energy that can be applied to feed your body the nutrients needed to take away the ache. For soft tissue muscle, nerve renewal during sleep best to use at bedtime for this purpose.

Contraindications :- Germinated wheat is not indicated for people with an excess of estrogen hormones in their bodies.
Abscisic acid neutralizes the effect of chorionic gonadotropin, the hormone that protects the fetus from being rejected. Dr. Virginia Livingston-Wheeler believed that cancer cells (or the microbes associated with them) produce a substance very similar to chorionic gonadotropin. Abscisic acid is a close relative of Vitamin A.

The C-glycosylflavone pigments found in embryonic wheat are a varied mixture of compounds in the luteolin and apigenin series; iso-orientin, lutonarin, lucenin-1, lucenin-3, vicenin-2, and an unreported C-glycoside, wyomin, an iso-orientin derivative with rutinose at the 7-position. In addition, a 4′-O-glucosyl derivative of iso-swertisin was identified along with the previously reported flavone, tricin. Two new steroid ketones: (24R)-14 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-ergostan-3-one and 14 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholestan-3-one and two new tetracyclic triterpenoids: cycloart-5-ene-3 beta, 25-diol and cycloart-3 beta, 25-diol together with the known compounds: cholesterol, ergosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, spinasterol and stigmastanol were identified. Cyclic hydroxamic acid glucosides are present at high concentrations immediately after germination in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum).

Three isoenzymes of malate dehydrogenase have been isolated from 9-day-old wheat shoots. The microbody (peroxisome) and chloroplast MDH are similar in their electrophoretic behavior. The mitochondrial MDH, soluble MDH and chloroplast MDH differ in Km values for malate and NAD. The activity of MDH isoenzymes with NAD+-analogues as substrate was in the order 3-AP-NAD+ > 3-AP-deam NAD+ > NAD+ > TN-NAD+ and deam NAD+. The thermal stabilities of the isoenzymes were significantly different: C-MDH> -MDH> S-MDH.

In embryonic wheat (Triticum Aestivum), TAXI-(T. Aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP- (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI-type (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) xylanase inhibitors (XIs) are expressed in considerable levels and under different forms. As these proteins have a significant impact on microbial xylanases. In humans this is an important discovery contrary to the common belief that wheat contribute to the increase yeast growth now refuted because this xylanase inhibitor actually inhibits fermentation in the colon. Xylanase is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose. Xylanase is produced by many microorganisms but not mammals. Xylanase is used to break down plants as well as the sugar xylose. It has been found in many different fungi and bacteria. The enzyme is from Trichoderma sp and consists of 190 amino acids. Xylanase belongs to the glucanase enzyme family, which is characterized by their ability to break down various xylans to produce short-chain xylo-oligosaccharides. Enzymes are important to proper nutrition and proper digestion. Without the proper levels of enzymes from foods or supplements, you are susceptible to excessive gas and bloating, diarrhea, constipation, heartburn, low energy, acne, arthritis, allergies, insomnia, high cholesterol and many other discomforts. Xylanase is a pathogenic protein inhibitors. Gastrointestinal biofilm infections, and associated systemic symptoms caused by biofilms associated microorganisms within the gastrointestinal tract.

Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) contains a previously unknown type of xylanase (EC inhibitor, which is described in the present paper for the first time. Based on its >60% similarity to TLPs (thaumatin-like proteins) and the fact that it contains the Prosite PS00316 thaumatin family signature, it is referred to as TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor). TLXI is a basic (pI> or =9.3 in isoelectric focusing) protein with a molecular mass of approx. 18-kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) and it occurs in wheat with varying extents of glycosylation. The TLXI gene sequence encodes a 26-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 151-amino-acid mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 15.6-kDa and pI of 8.38. The mature TLXI protein was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris, resulting in a 21-kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) recombinant protein (rTLXI). Polyclonal antibodies raised against TLXI purified from wheat react with epitopes of rTLXI as well as with those of thaumatin, demonstrating high structural similarity between these three proteins. TLXI has a unique inhibition specificity. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of a number of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases, but it is inactive towards glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. Progress curves show that TLXI is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, with a K(i) of approx. 60-nM. Except for zeamatin, an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from maize (Zea Mays), no other enzyme inhibitor is currently known among the TLPs. TLXI thus represents a novel type of inhibitor within this group of proteins. TAXI-type xylanase inhibitors have a role in plant defense. TAXI-type Xylanase Inhibitor Genes are Inducible by Pathogens and Wounding in Hexaploid Wheat. Activity against an Aspergillus niger with xylanase inhibitor found in embryonic wheat.

References: 2007 Fierens Ellen; Rombouts Sigrid; Gebruers Kurt; Goesaert Hans; Brijs Kristof; Beaugrand Johnny; Volckaert Guido; Van Campenhout Steven; Proost Paul; Courtin Christophe M; Delcour Jan A. The Biochemical journal 2007; 403(3):583-91.
IGAWA T(Riken, Kanagawa, Jpn) OCHIAI-FUKUDA T(Riken, Kanagawa, Jpn) TAKAHASHI-ANDO N(Riken, Kanagawa, Jpn) OHSATO S(Riken, Kanagawa, Jpn) SHIBATA T(Riken, Saitama, Jpn) YAMAGUCHI I(Riken, Kanagawa, Jpn) KIMURA M(Riken, Kanagawa, Jpn).
G. O. Elliott, W. R. McLauchlan, G. Williamson and P. A. Kroonf1. Diet, Health and Consumer Sciences Division, Institute of Food Research, Colney Lane, Norwich, NR4 7UA, UK. 25 January 2002.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are driven by imbalances in innate and acquired immune response. In IBD two dysregulated T cell subsets are in the focus of interest: activated effector T cells and regulatory T cells. These T cell subsets are characterized by a strong expression of the ectopeptidases dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV /CD26) and aminopeptidase N (APN/CD13), which are thought to a role in the control of immune activation and in regulating cellular communication by hydrolyzing bioactive polypeptides. Since inhibitors of both enzymes were shown to be effective in limiting immune activation processes in vitro as well as in vivo, they emerged as new drug candidates for the treatment of diseases associated with an imbalanced T cell response, such as IBD. In this review we intent to throw light on the putative role of DPIV, APN and related enzymes in the regulation of immune and non-immune processes in inflammatory bowel diseases, on possible benefits from peptidase inhibitor therapy in these diseases as well on the gaps of knowledge in this field.

References: Front Biosci (2008) 13: 3699-713. U Bank, UR Bohr, D Reinhold, U Lendeckel, S Ansorge, P Malfertheiner, M Tager

Cellobiase activity in presence of glycosylation inhibitors
Research area: diversity and specificity of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism i.e. carbohydrate-active enzymes, carbohydrate-binding modules, and enzyme inhibitors in relation with the mechanisms of absorption from the gut, gut microbiology and food biotechnology. Special interests (1) structure-function relationships of enzymes involved in starch and plant cell wall degradation (amylases, xylanases, esterases), polyphenol metabolism (glucosidases) and mucin degradation (2) biodiversity of mucin binding proteins in gut microbiota and protein-glycan interactions, (3) occurrence, mechanism of action and specificity of protein inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

By mediating communication between the immune system and the gut microbiota, the intestinal epithelium plays a pivotal role in regulating innate immunity and the development of tolerance. Maintenance of epithelial barrier function and tissue regeneration following injury underpins this vital role. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that perturbation of the mechanisms by which the epithelium detects the presence of bacterial structures leads to the disruption of barrier function and tissue regeneration, and is associated with the onset of irritable bowel disease IBD. Establishing the influence that epithelia-associated immune cells have on anti-microbial defenses and antimicrobial protein (AMP) production. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival.

How antigens are taken up in the small and large intestine, respectively, and presented to the immune system as self or non-self, resulting in tolerance or inflammatory responses. The research here aims to investigate in more detail the pathways of antigen uptake in different regions of the intestine.

The gut is exposed to multiple foreign antigens but is rarely invoked into damaging inflammatory responses. The anatomical location in which intestinal antigens are captured and the phenotype of the capturing cell are likely to have important implications for the nature of any immune response that develops. The particular characteristics of soluble, particulate and pathogen-borne antigens will profoundly affect their fate but this will also be strongly influenced by the way they initially interact with the immune system. An objective of this study is to determine the contribution that epithelial cells (IEC) and dendritic cells (DC) make to antigen uptake in both the small and large intestine and to test the hypothesis that IECs play a central role in maintaining immune cell homeostasis by constraining T cell responses to self antigens and by initiating DC responses to non-self, pathogen-encoded antigens. Inappropriate or defective regulation of DC function could contribute to an inability to maintain or a breakdown in oral tolerance and the development of the chronic inflammation that is a hallmark of various intestinal disorders including Irritable Bowel Disease.

References: World Journal of Gastroenterology 14 (38) 5834-41 Cruickshank S. M., Wakenshaw L., Cardone J., Howdle P. D., Murray P. J., Carding S. R. (2008).

The research builds upon a long term program on the biology and health benefits of cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates which embryonic wheat contains and more effective than that of broccoli or any cruciferous vegetable without the associated causing flatulence.

Glucosinolates are sulphur containing glycosides that accumulate in tissues of cruciferous crops and also in many embryonic plants especially of interest here is Wheat/Grass. Following consumption, deglycosylation occurs due to the action of plant or microbial thioglucosinases (‘myrosinases’) leading to unstable compounds that rearrange, resulting in the formation of isothiocyanates, indoles found also in embryonic plant phytohormone “Auxin Indole Acetic Acid” (IAA) and a small number of other products. Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a reduction in incidence of chronic disease such as cancer and myocardial infarction through the consumption of one or more portions of cruciferous vegetables per week.

There is an inconsistency between the results of observational studies that suggest that in general only small dosages moderate intake of broccoli is required for health benefits, and the suggested mechanisms from cell and animal studies that results from exposure of these systems to isothiocyanates far greater than that which would occur in the diet.

Research at Institute of Food Research IFR makes a unique and significant contribution by obtaining evidence for health benefits of cruciferous vegetables and elucidating fundamental mechanisms through the use of short and long term human dietary intervention studies. Much of the basis of the current research is founded upon the development of broccoli lines with enhanced levels of glucosinolates. Through comparing the biological activity of these lines with that of standard broccoli it is possible to distinguish the activity of glucosinolates and their degradation products to that of the phytochemical background. They have completed a study on the pharmacokinetics of sulforaphane obtained from consuming standard and high glucosinolate broccoli and its interaction with human GSTM1 genotype, and are in progress of completing three pilot studies to assess the effect of broccoli consumption on global gene expression within healthy gastric, bladder and prostate tissue. These studies on the effect of broccoli consumption are complemented with studies with the isothiocyanates that are obtained from broccoli in which they are addressing the fundamental molecular interactions that underlie changes in gene and protein expression that we observed with broccoli consumption.

References: Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK.
Bacteria dominate the human gut ecosystem. The majority belong to just two phyla: the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes. On the other hand, there is great diversity at lower taxonomic levels and considerable interpersonal variation in the bacterial species and strains present in the gut microbiota. Metagenomic surveys have revealed unprecedented microbial biodiversity in the human intestine. Upwards of 40,000 bacterial species are estimated to comprise the collective gastrointestinal microbiome, most of which have yet to be characterized by culture. Diverse disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, obesity, and pouchitis have been correlated with large-scale imbalances in the gastrointestinal microbiota, or ‘dysbiosis’, demonstrating the importance of commensal microorganisms in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Bioactive compounds, like that of embryonic wheat extracts targeting in particular immunomodulation and cell proliferation in relation with work on gut immunity and the gut epithelium, and also in the modulation of the microbiota intestinal flora balance. Which can be achieved by using Maize – Zea Mais (embryonic germinating seed-rootlets), Nigella – Nigella Sativa (embryonic germinating seed-rootlets), Rye – Secale Cereale (embryonic germinating seed-rootlets) or Wheat – Triticum Aestivum (young shoots) which all contains: glucosinolates, auxins indoles and are all xylanase inhibitor. Regulate and modulate also the development and maintenance of the mucin barrier. Also their activity on the overlying mucus gel layer of the intestinal epithelium is the anatomical site at which the host first encounters gut bacteria. Bacterial attachment to the mucus is fundamental and key to the establishment of a stable commensal microflora, and relevant to the progress of infection by important pathogenic bacteria. To date there has been little attention paid to the interaction of bacteria with the complex mucus gel that overlay epithelial surfaces. Interact with the host in preserving gut health and, the role they play in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and intestinal disease. But do not use Silver Birch (seed) for this reason since it contains a different group of phytochemicals. In bold are the two most important and the use of Nigella for the beginning of colon cancers is preferred.

Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising flavonoids (0.90 mg.100 g-1-6.08 mg.100 g-1), alkaloids (1.13-1.63 mg.100 g-1), tannins (0.28-1.02 mg.100 g-1), phenols (0.05-0.07 mg.100 g-1) and saponins (0.09-0.20 mg.100 g-1). The protein, carbohydrates, lipids and fiber content were 12.25-18.81%, 71.19-80.41%, 2.68-6.03% and 1.36-4.38%, respectively. The food energy content ranges from 387.54 to 411.86 cal.g-1. The grains are rich in B-vitamins such as niacin (1.50-4.60 mg.100 g-1), riboflavin (0.10-0.66 mg.100 g-1) and thiamine (0.32-1.36 mg.100 g-1) while ascorbic acid content ranges from 6.16 to 12.32 mg.100 g-1. These grains are good sources of minerals comprising calcium (2.41-2.61 mg.100 g-1), phosphorus (0.28-0.32 mg.100 g-1), potassium (0.18-0.49 mg.100 g-1), and magnesium (1.22-1.95 mg.100 g-1). Surekha S. Puyed, Jamuna Prakash India. 2007 (pp 354-360).

Green font color for ABC Transporters. Among the compounds that are mobilized by these transporters are: glutathione-conjugates(Martinoia et al. 1993. Antifungal Diterpene terpenoids (Jasinski et al. 2001), Auxins (Noh et al. 2001; Geisler et al. 2005),Xavones (Kleinet al. 2000). Steroids (Forestier et al. 2003).

The chemicals thiamin, pyridoxin and niacin are vitamins, necessary in the diet of animals and other heterotrophs for
normal growth and maintenance. In the green plant these same chemicals function in the physiological role of hormones. And within the cells of organisms they each function as a part of a vital enzyme. Thus the same chemical may function in any of three physiological roles: vitamin, hormone, and enzyme.

Total antioxidant activity: 90% in wheat, 87% in corn, 71% in rice, and 58% in oats. Bound phytochemicals could survive stomach and intestinal digestion to reach the colon. This may partly explain the mechanism of grain consumption in the prevention of colon cancer, other digestive cancers, breast cancer, and prostate cancer, although there is a problem when ingesting too many fibers in preventing the absorption of many important vital minerals for good health again moderation is key and not daily use of Metamucil which causes mineral deficiencies.

Sesquiterpene Abscisic acid (ABA) is an isoprenoid Plant Stress Hormone (PSH), which is synthesized in the plastid. Plastids are major organelles found in the cells of plants. Plastids are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell al 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (methylerythritol phosphate) (MEP) pathway; unlike the structurally related sesquiterpene. Sesquiterpene Abscisic Acid is a plant hormone derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Abscisic acid counteracts the effects of most other plant hormones. That is, it inhibits germination, growth, budding, and leaf senescence. Physiological evidence suggests a role for abscisic acid in ion and water balance.
ABA-containing maple and birch leaf extracts from plants grown under short-day conditions inhibit leaf growth and induce even in fast growing shoots dormant buds. When the formula of ABA was known the production of a number of derivatives began none of which attained the effect of ABA.

In some plant tissues (especially in young shoots) occurs a related compound called Xanthoxine.

Whether xanthoxine is an intermediate of the ABA-biosynthesis or whether it is an independent product remains unknown. The structure indicates that both ABA and xanthoxine are terpene derivatives. This was proven when it could be shown that radioactively labeled mevalonic acid is integrated into ABA though it does not elucidate which intermediates are produced. Two alternative biosyntheses have been discussed:

ABA is a degradation product of xanthophyll (especially of violaxanthin). ABA is produced from a C15 precursor using a separate pathway and is thus independent from the carotenoid/xanthophyll metabolism.

Abscisic acid (ABA) Biological Activities:

  • Acts as a Human Cytokine which ultimately control every aspect of body defense
  • Suppresses theproliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells
  • Activate Chemokinesis, random (interleukin-8)
  • Stimulation of Human Granulocytes
  • Stimulates Phagocytosis
  • Stimulates the production of Reactive Oxygen Species ROS (which help kill pathogens)
  • Stimulation of Cyclic ADP-ribose
  • Triggers Nitric Oxide production NO (another cytokine)
  • Abscisic acid is a close relative of Vitamin A
  • Highly stable inhibitor of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway against broad-spectrum antimicrobial, antimalarial, and antiprotozoal activity without mechanism-based toxicity to humans
  • Stimulates the endocrinal glands resulting in more secretions of enzymes and hormones
  • Abscisic acid neutralizes the effect of chorionic gonadotropin, the hormone that protects the fetus from being rejected
  • Stimulator of insulin release from human pancreatic beta cells regeneration will help lower the blood sugar level
  • Helps losing weight,removal of toxins from the body, and promotes digestion

INDICATIONS: Juvenile Diabetes type 1, Adult onset Diabetes type 2, pre diabetic conditions, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and diseases and disorders involving the immune system such as inflammation, Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s, including Obesity-related inflammation, Inflammatory bowel disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Allergies, Asthma, Cardiovascular disease, and Arthritis.

Some cytokines are antagonistic in that one cytokine stimulates a particular defense function while another cytokine inhibits that function. Other cytokines are synergistic wherein two different cytokines have a greater effect in combination than either of the two would by themselves. How cytokines function to regulate innate and adaptive immune defenses.
Cytokines are pleiotropic, redundant, and multifunctional.

Pleiotropic means that a particular cytokine can act on a number of different types of cells rather than a single cell type.

Redundant refers to the ability of a number of different cytokines to carry out the same function.

Multifunctional means the same cytokine is able to regulate a number of different functions.

There are three functional categories of cytokines:

Cytokines that regulate innate immune responses Cytokines that regulate adaptive Immune responses Cytokines that stimulate hematopoiesis. The production of blood cellular components from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.

Cytokines that regulate innate immunity are produced primarily by mononuclear phagocytes such as macrophages (are derived from monocytes) and dendritic cells (also derived from monocytes), although they can also be produced by T-lymphocytes, NK cells, endothelial cells, and mucosal epithelial cells. They are produced primarily in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharides LPS, peptidoglycan monomers, teichoic acids, unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide or CpG sequences in bacterial and viral genomes, and double-stranded viral RNA. Cytokines produced in response to PRRs on cell surfaces, such as the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha, mainly act on leukocytes and the endothelial cells that form blood vessels in order to promote and control early inflammatory responses. Cytokines produced in response to PRRs that recognize viral nucleic acids, such as type I interferons, primarily block viral replication within infected host cells.