WHITE BIRCH – BETULA PUBESCENS

Click to purchase White Birch – Betula Pubescens

Part Used:


Buds

The Betula pubescens is a deciduous, short-lived tree, growing to 65 ft in height at a rapid rate. It is similar to the Betula verrucosa but with smoother bark and downy twigs, hence its common name, “Downy Birch.” Dazzling, greyish-white bark covers its trunk and ascending branches and, unlike trees that fade into the background at the arrival of leafless winter, the Betula pubescens stands tall, elegantly displaying its natural beauty against a winter landscape. Its scented flowers bloom in April before the appearance of its finely serrated leaves. The fruit is a loosely hanging, cylindrical aggregate that disintegrates at maturity, releasing individual two-winged seeds. The tree is noted for attracting wildlife.

Edible Uses:
Inner bark; Sap; Leaves; Catkins; Tea.

Inner bark: This is cooked or dried, ground into a powder then used with cereals for making bread, etc. Inner bark is generally only seen as a famine food and used when other forms of starch are not available or are in short supply.

Sap: This can be eaten raw or cooked. It has a sweet flavor. It is harvested in early spring, before the leaves unfurl, by tapping the trunk. The flow is best on sunny days following a heavy frost. The sap is often concentrated into a sugar by boiling off the water. Between 4 and 7 liters can be drawn off a mature tree in a day and this will not kill the tree as long as the tap hole is filled up afterwards. However, prolonged or heavy tapping will kill the tree. A beer can be fermented from the sap. An old English recipe for the beer is as follows:

“To every gallon of Birch water put a quart of honey, well stir’s together; then boil it almost an hour with a few cloves, and a little limon-peel, keeping it well scum’s. When it is sufficiently boil’s, and become cold, add to it three or four spoonfuls of good ale to make it work…and when the test begins to settle, bottle it up. It is gentle and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly sharpens the Appetite, being taken antepastum.

Young leaves: These can be eaten raw or cooked.

Young catkins: No more details are given except in Gemmotherapy (see below)

A tea is made from the leaves and another tea is made from the essential oil in the inner bark.

Other Uses:
Adhesive; Besom; Charcoal; Compost; Dye; Essential; Fiber; Fungicide; Paper; Pioneer; Polish; Repellent; Tannin;
Thatching; Waterproofing; Wood.

The bark is used to make drinking vessels, canoe skins, roofing tiles, etc. It is waterproof, durable, tough and resinous. Only the outer bark is removed, though this does not kill the tree. It is most easily removed in late spring to early summer. The bark was pressed flat and stored until the following spring. When required for making canoes, it would be heated over a fire to make it pliable for shaping to the canoe frame.

A pioneer species, it readily invades old fields, cleared or burnt-over land, and creates conditions suitable for other woodland trees to become established. Since it is relatively short-lived and intolerant of shade, it is eventually out-competed by these trees.

A tar-oil is obtained from the white bark in spring. It has fungicidal properties and is also used as an insect repellent. It makes a good shoe polish. Another report says that an essential oil is obtained from the bark and this, called “Russian Leather,” has been used as a perfume.

A glue is made from the sap.

Cordage can be made from the fibers of the inner bark. This inner bark can also be separated into thin layers and used as a substitute for oiled paper.

A decoction of the inner bark is used to preserve cordage; it is rich in tannin. The bark contains up to 16% tannin.

A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark.

Oil similar to wintergreen oil (obtained from Gaultheria procumbens) is obtained from the inner bark. It is used medicinally and also makes a refreshing tea.

The young branches are very flexible and are used to make whisks, besoms, etc. They are also used in thatching and to make wattles.

The leaves are a good addition to the compost heap, improving fermentation.

A black paint is obtained from the soot of the plant; a high quality charcoal is obtained from the bark that is used by artists, painters, etc.

Wood is soft, light and durable. It is used for a wide range of purposes including furniture, tool handles, carving, toys etc. It is a source of charcoal that is used by artists and is also pulped and used for making paper.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Betulinic.jpg

Betulinic acid is not very poisonous, is relatively inexpensive, and is abundantly available from the bark of white birch trees in the form of betulin. The compound is presently undergoing pre-clinical development.

Reference: Pisha, et al. 1995Nature Medicine. 1995; 1(10):1046-1051.

Topical and Cosmetic Applications:

Betula Alba, contains high levels of the pentacyclic triperpenes–Betulin and Betulinic Acid–known for their ability to prevent cancer and even kill cancer cell by bringing about apoptosis of the tumor cell and actively inhibiting the enzyme elastase to prevent/correct the loss of elastic fibers responsible for skin suppleness. It stimulates collagen synthesis and inhibits inflammatory processes by protecting against protein kinases; inhibits melanogenesis to achieve skin lightening and improve skin tone and clarity.

Phytotherapy Indications: 

Antirheumatic; Astringent; Bitter; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Lithontripic; Antiinflammatory, cholagogue, diaphoretic. The bark is diuretic and laxative. The inner bark is bitter and astringent; it is used in treating intermittent fevers. Oil obtained from the inner bark is astringent and is used in the treatment of various skin afflictions, especially Eczema and Psoriasis. The bark is usually obtained from trees that have been felled for timber and can be distilled at any time of the year.
The buds are balsamic. The young shoots and leaves secrete a resinous substance that has acid properties. When combined with alkalis, it is a tonic laxative.

The leaves are anticholesterolemic and diuretic. They also contain phytosides which are effective germicides. An infusion of the leaves is used in the treatment of gout, dropsy, and rheumatism, and is recommended as a reliable solvent of kidney stones. The young leaves and leaf buds are harvested in the spring and dried for later use.

A decoction of the leaves and bark is used for bathing skin eruptions.

The vernal sap is diuretic.

The boiled and powdered wood has been applied to chafed skin.

Moxa is made from the yellow fungous excrescences of the wood, which sometimes swell out of the fissures.


White Birch – Betula Pubescens (buds):


Oligo-elements:


Cu, Fe, K, Mg, P.


Vitamins and Minerals:


A, B1, B2, Calcium, C, E.


Phytochemical Constituents:


5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxyflavanone ,6-Acetoxycaryophyllene, 6-Hydroxycaryophyllene, 14-Acetoxy-α-humulene, 14-hydroxy-4,5-dihydro-β-caryophyllene, Acacetin, Adenine B-4, Apigenin, Auxins indole acetic acid IAA, β-Betulenal, Birkenal, Brassinosteroids, Caryophylla-2(12),6(13)-dien-5β-ol(=Caryophylladienol I), Caryophylla-2(12), 6(13)-dien-5α-ol(=Caryophylladienol II), Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Humulene epoxide, Heneicosane, Hushinone, Naringenin, Dammarane sapogenins triterpenoids although the content is less than that of the flower male catkins, Hydrolysable Ellagitannins Pedunculagin, 5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxyflavanone, Myricetin-3-galactoside and Quercetin-3-galactoside, Tricosane, an important resource for Sesquiterpenes in particular for caryophyllene derivatives. Their biological activity has shown to have antimicrobial activity against various human and plant pathogens.

In vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation against selected human pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus and the fungus Candida glabrata using 14-hydroxy-β-caryophyllene (1), 14-acetoxy-β-caryophyllene(1a), β-betulenal (2), β-caryophyllene (3), and 14-hydroxy-isocaryophyllene (4) were conducted. Chloramphenicol was used as reference and moderate activities were observed against Gram (+)/(-) bacteria. Ketoconazole was used as antifungal reference against C. glabrata, where also moderate activity was observed. Antibacterial activity was shown against Streptococcus nutans, S. aureus and E. coli for caryophylla-4,8(13)-dien-6-ol, caryophylla-4,8(13)-dien-6-one, caryophylla-4,7-dien-6-one and caryophylla-3,8(13)-dien-5,6-diol isolated from B. pubescens, activities of which were said to be patented.30 Other antimicrobial investigations using different extracts of various Betula species have been conducted.31-34 Recently, 14-hydroxy-β-caryophyllene (1) was reported to have antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

References: Betül Demirci1,2, Dietrich H. Paper1, Fatih Demirci1,2, K. Hüsnü Can Bas¸er2 andGerhard Franz1,* Advance Access Publication 6 October 2004.
1Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Regensburg.
Regensburg, Germany and 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Anadolu University, Eskis¸ehir, Turkey.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Polycrest All.

The White Birch buds have a very special unique biological action; they increase the rate at which carbon particles fixed by the reticuloendothelial cells are purged from the blood. Birch buds are a great blood purifier.


Pulmonary System & ENT:


Anti-inflammatory in Pleurisy, Repeated Rhinopharyngitis, Sinusitis, Tracheitis, Tracheobronchitis, Asthma, Allergies, Antiaflatoxin, Natural anti histamine due to its acacetin flavanoid content notice here the difference from normal quercetin which is normally present in embryonic plants.


Immunology & Infectious Diseases:


Antibacterial E-Coli, Staphylococcus aureus; Antifungal Candida. Antimalaria. Stimulates the spleen Macrophages and a great adjuvant in all forms of hepatitis by stimulating Kupffer cells which play an anti-toxic role with the liver. Lining the walls of the liver sinusoids, Kupffer cells are in close contact with the blood stream; in contrast, the only contact that hepatocytes have with the plasma is in the space of Disse, beyond the “sinusoidal barrier”. The Kupffer cells, together with other sinusoidal cells, play a key role in the maintenance of liver function, under both physiological and pathological circumstances. The major functions of Kupffer cells include phagocytosis of foreign particles, removal of endotoxins and other noxious substances, and modulation of the immune response. Lowered Immunity. Flu, Colds, Upper Respiratory Infections. Kupffer cells biphasic actions are capable of stimulating or inhibiting polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis and that some of these effects may be influenced by the products of ethanol metabolism, suggesting that Kupffer cells may play an important role in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis.

Dammarane the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. The endothelial Cells are important in affecting the apparent reduction of toxic oxygen products derived from polymorphonuclear leukocytes attached to their surface. Apigenin inhibit in vitro antigen-specific proliferation and interferon-gamma production by murine and human autoimmune T cells. Flavonoids such as luteolin, fisetin and apigenin are inhibitors of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 production by activated human basophils.


GI Digestive-Hepatology System:


Hepatoprotective and Gastroprotective, Alcoholic hepatitis, Constipation, Diverticulosis. Lack of appetite. Caryophyllene are: Fungicidal – Inhibits the growth of fungus. Anticholinesterase – inhibits the activity of cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase. N-tricosane and n-pentacosane were the active compounds, each significantly reducing parasitoid.


Endocrine System:


Pancreatitis, Obesity from over eating, stimulates the Adrenals. General fatigue of menopausal women and senior citizens. Iodothyronine-Deiodinase-Inhibitor antithyroid agent by acacetin flavonoid. Because these buds also contain the hormone brassinosteroid you will have a regulatory effect on euthyroid or hypothyroid and hyperthyroidism Graves disease. The iodothyronine deiodinases constitute a family of enzymes that catalyze the removal of iodine atoms from various thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland and extrathyroidal tissues. As such, they are responsible for both the activation and inactivation of these compounds, and are thus important regulators of TH action. Recently, new insights have been gained into the biochemical characteristics of these proteins and their physiologic roles in TH metabolism. In particular, the availability of affinity-labeling techniques, molecular probes, and specific antisera for these enzymes, and the recent identification of the type I deiodinase as a selenoprotein, have ushered in a new era in the study of thyroid hormone deiodination. Although thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine; T4) is the principal secretory product of the vertebrate thyroid, its essential metabolic and developmental effects are all mediated by triiodothyronine (T3), which is produced from the prohormone by 5-prime-deiodination. The type I iodothyronine deiodinase, a thiol-requiring propylthiouracil-sensitive oxidoreductase, is found mainly in liver and kidney. Thyroid hormone modulates gene expression in virtually every vertebrate cell through ligand-dependent transcription factors, the T3 receptors. Levothyroxin synthroid does nothing for T3. Thyroid hormone is secreted as a pro-hormone (T4) that can be activated to T3 in a stage-and tissue-specific manner by two iodothyronine deiodinases, D1 and D2, while a third deiodinase, D3, prevents T4 activation and terminates T3 action. These three deiodinases are dimeric integral membrane proteins composed of a single N-terminal trans-membrane segment connected to a larger globular domain that contains the active center embedded in a thioredoxin fold. A striking feature of this pocket is the presence of the rare amino acid Selenocysteine (Sec) that is critical for catalysis. D2-mediated thyroid hormone activation also plays an important role in energy homeostasis. D2 ubiquitination via ECSWSB-1 regulates chondrocyte differentiation and thus mediates a mechanism by which thyroid hormone can affect local control of skeletogenesis.
Decreased type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase expression might be an early and discrete event in thyroid cell differentiation towards papillary carcinoma.

Type III-iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) degrades thyroid hormones by converting thyroxine and 3,5,3′-triiodothyroinine (T3) to inactive metabolites. A regional expression of D3 activity has been observed in the human central nervous system (CNS), and a critical role for D3 has been suggested in the regulation of local T3 content in concert with other enzymes. D3 contributes to the local regulation of T3 content in the human CNS. Thyroid hormone is essential for maintaining normal neurological functions both during development and in adult life.


Cardio Vascular System:


Varicose veins with edema of the legs. Pendunculagin has strong inhibitory activities on fatty acid synthase with IC(50) values in the range of 0.21-41.4 muM. And exhibited significant antioxidant activities higher than vitamin C. Anti-inflammatory.


ENT:


Early hearing loss. Deiodinase provides an unexpectedly important level of regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor TR pathways required forcochlear maturation (ear development in infant). Natural Anti-histamine for mild allergies.


Ophthalmology:


Cataracts and Myopia.


Muscular Skeletal System:


Osteoporosis post menopausal. Tendonitis, Gonarthrosis, Coxarthritis, Consolidation of fractured bones. Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout, and generalized muscle pain.


Uro-genital Oncology:


Acacetin (AC), the flavonoid compounds with same flavone ring structure but different substitution, has been shown to be effective againsthuman prostate cancer (PCA) LNCaP and DU145 cells. Overall, AC showed more potent anticancer efficacy among these three flavonoids, which was diminished when its flavone ring was modified by disaccharide rhamnose substitution at C7 (LN) or acetylation of this substituted group (LA). These findings for the first time revealed the structural determinants in anticancer efficacy and mechanisms of these three flavonoids against human PCA cells.


Hematology-Oncology:


Apigenin, just like most flavonoids, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties, perhaps apigenin also block the formation of uric acid. Apigenin induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in activated microglia. Apigenin inhibited the growth of human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) and through apoptotic pathway. The potentiating synergistic effect of beta-caryophyllene on the anticancer activity of alpha-humulene, isocaryophyllene and paclitaxel against MCF-7 cells: alpha-humulene or isocaryophyllene alone (32 microg mL(-1)) inhibited cell growth by about 50% and 69%, respectively, compared with 75% and 90% when combined with 10 microg mL(-1) beta-caryophyllene. Pedunculagin (Ellagitannin) An Underestimated Class of tannins; Antitumor; Cytotoxic; Human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K-562), human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), mouse lymphoid neoplasm (P388), mouse lymphocytic leukemia (L1210) and mouse sarcoma 180 (S 180) cell lines.

Pedunculagin showed the antitumor activity and its T/C ratio (%) was 120.82% in the group of both concentrations. Pendunculagin inhibit the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells by inhibiting apoptosis the inhibition affects “reporters of immune response”andsignaling pathways including nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-KB), leading the researchers to conclude pedunculagin maybe an effective lung cancer chemopreventive agent. Protein kinase inhibitor PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

References: Jee Hun Chang3, Jang Hyun Cho3, Ha Hyung Kim3, Kwang Pyo Lee3, Min Won Lee1, Seong Sun Han2 and Do Ik Lee3
(1) Division of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, Chung Ang University, 156-756 Seoul, Korea.
(2) Division of Microbiology, College of Pharmacy, Chung Buk National University, Cheong Ju, 360-763 Chung Buk, Korea.
(3) Division of Immunology, College of Pharmacy, Chung Ang University, 221 Huk Suk Dong, Dong Jak Gu, 156-756 Seoul, Korea.


Psychiatry:


Antidepressant-like effects of apigenin from white birch buds plant. Antidepressant properties of apigenin, which may be mediated by the dopaminergic mechanisms.


White Birch – Betula Pubescens (flower male-catkins):


Polycrest All.

Flowers, male and female, occur in separate, pendulous catkins on the same tree. Male catkins are partially formed in the fall, remain dormant in the winter, and expand to about 4″ before flowering in the spring. Female catkins appear in the spring before the leaves are fully expanded. Having unisexual flowers in catkins. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. Flower male catkins are so amazing in their phytochemical constituents. Betula; Pollen; Male catkin; Flowering synchronization.


Oligo-elements:


B, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mb, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, Si, Su, Ti, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:


B-1, B-2 B-3, B-5, B-6, B-12, Biotin, C, Calcium, Choline, D, Folic Acid, E, Inositol, K, Lecithin, Choline, Inositol.


Phytochemical Constituents:


22 amino acids, Powerful Antioxidant, 33 triterpenoids of the Dammarane sapogenins series were isolated from the flower make catkins – pollen. Sapogenins are the aglycones, or non-saccharide, portions of the family of natural products known as saponins. Sapogenins contain steroid or other triterpene. The aglycones (glycoside-free portion) of the saponins are termed sapogenins. The wind blows the fine pollen from these male catkins onto the female catkins. J-Elemonene, Betulafolientriol oxide, Enzymes; (amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, diaphorase, diastase, cozymase, cytochrome, pectase, phosphatase, sucrase, and also lactic acids), Fatty Acids, Ferulic acid, Flavonoids, Myricetin, Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA), Quercetin, Rutin, Trans-cinnamic acid, Pollen, Polyphenolics, p-Coumaric acid, Rutin. Potent Sterols Brassinosteroids, SOD superoxide dismutase, Androstenedione, Testosterone, and Epitestosterone in high amounts.

The dammarane sapogenins backbone is a tetracyclic terpene of the dammarane series. Starting from the 1980’s, a protopanaxadiol compound Ginsenoside Rh2, was shown to possess strong anti-cancer activity and Rh2 has been the focus of attention over the past two decades. However, the amount of Rh2 in plants is extremely low. The chemical structures of dammarane sapogenins are similar to that of Rh2 and possess equal or more potent Rh2 analogs with anti-cancer activities. Also dammarane-type triterpene saponins show potent hepatoprotective effects.

This dammarane structure is similar to the chemical structure of steroid hormones, a group of compounds occurring naturally in the bodies of animals and humans, and which play important roles in regulating a number of bodily systems. However, these steroid-like components do not have a direct hormonal action, but only influence the body to produce a healthy balance (homeostasis) of hormones. (It should be noted here, for the benefit of athletes, that the steroid-like dammarane structures of White Birch – Betula Pubescens (flower male-catkins) jiaogulan and ginseng can be detected without being confused with steroid hormones, such as androgen, testosterone, or corticosterone. In other words, White Birch – Betula Pubescens (flower male-catkins), jiaogulan nor ginsengs are banned substances by the International Olympic Committee.) Note the similarity between the chemical structure of gypenosides and our body’s own steroids. This similarity might contain the secret of its energizing, balancing, and therapeutic effects.

The relationship between chemical structure and hemolytic and cytotoxic activity was studied for dammarane-type triterpenoids isolated from the flower male catkins. It was shown that an acyclic side chain (betulafolienetriol and betulafolienetetraol) imparted significantly higher hemolytic and cytotoxic activity than a cyclic side chain. The activity of epoxydammaranetriol with an 11α-OH group was slightly higher than that of epoxydammaranetriol with a 12β-OH group. The activity of C-3 epimeric epoxydammaranetriols and-tetraols with a 12β-OH group was independent of the configuration of the C-3 hydroxyl. Epoxydammaranetriols with an 11α-OH group and epoxydammaranediols with a 3α-OH group were more active than those with a 3β-OH group. The effect of the most active compounds on the micro viscosity of tumor-cell membranes was determined.

Caspase 8 is an upstream player that transfers the initial death signal to caspase 3, or 6 or 7. Cytochrome C and caspase 9 play similar roles as caspase 8 as initiators to transfer the death message. Mutations in cancer cells often result in interruption of those signal transduction pathways to allow cancer cells to survive in the presence of death signals initiated with various anti-cancer drugs or therapies. Interestingly, sufficient evidence has demonstrated that dammarane sapogenins activate all of the caspases tested in many cancer cells in an almost simultaneous fashion including caspase 8, 9 and caspase 3, 6 and 7, the so-called death executors. Thus, for the mechanism involving caspases, dammarane sapogenins do not require any particular upstream caspase (caspase 8, 9) and are capable of “short-cutting” the death signal pathway to cause apoptosis.

In Pollen the largest constituent is carbohydrates, with protein content ranging from 7 to 35 percent depending on the plant species. Pollen contains over 50 % more protein than beef.

Amino Acids: at least 22 amino acids, Arginine 14.72%, Histidine 14.05%, Cysteine 1.43%, Lysine 3.18%.
Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Iron, Copper, Iodine, Zinc, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Selenium, Boron, Silica, and Titanium.

Vitamins: 18 vitamins, 25 minerals, 59 trace elements. Provitamin A, B-1 Thiamin, B-2 Riboflavin, B-3 Niacin, B-5, B-6 Pyridoxine, B-12 (cyanocobalamine), Pantothenic acid, Vitamin C, F, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin H, Vitamin K, Vitamin PP, Folic Acid, Choline, Inositol, Rutin,11 enzymes or co-enzymes, 14 fatty acids.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Polycrest All


Endocrine System:


General endocrinal stimulant especially Thyroid, by these amino acids, pollen supports the functions of the thyroid. Thyroiditis, Female Sexual Frigidity, Stimulate the function of the gonads testicular. Male Sterility. Male sexual fatigue. Andropause, Lowered Libido. Increases Improves energy and athletic physical performance. Influence the body to produce a healthy balance (homeostasis) of hormones. Androgen, testosterone, or corticosterone due to its content of brassinosteroids in the pollen. Corticosterone (CORT) is a 21 carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. Reduces body fats and increases lean mass muscles.


GI Digestive Hepatology:


potent hepatoprotective effects by increasing glutathione. Dammarane preserved the levels of catalase and inhibited decreases in glutathione reductase in glutamate-injured cells. Gastrointestinal degradation of birch pollen-related food allergens destroys their histamine-releasing, but not T cell-activating, property. Data emphasize that birch pollen-related foods are relevant activators of pollen-specific T cells.


Hematology-Oncology:


Dammarane Anticoagulants/Antiplatelet. Thrombocytosis. The dammarane sapogenins backbone is a tetracyclic terpene of the dammarane series arrest cancer proliferation and induce cancer cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Cancer prevention agents. Malignant brain tumors of glioma cells inhibition of tumor growth. A similar tumor inhibitory effect was also seen in human prostate cancer, breast estrogen receptive cancer and pancreatic cancer animal models. Dammarane sapogenins can kill a very wide range of cancer cells of different origins with varying genetic backgrounds. MCF-7 is a human breast cancer cell line, PC3 is human prostate cancer, SF188 is human brain cancer and 9L is rat brain tumor. All of these cells are responsive to dammarane sapogenins cytotoxicity within a narrow dose range. In addition, dammarane sapogenins also induce apoptosis in cancer cells of different genetic background. Dammarane sapogenins and its analogs have shown that it can destroy cancer cells independent of their p53 and PTEN genetic status.

Induce cancer cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms; 1) activate a series of enzymes inside cells in an orderly fashion
and resulting in cancer death through activating apoptosis pathways. 2) Activates multiple caspases and induces cancer cell apoptosis. 3) Raise high levels of free radicals inside cancer cells to cause apoptosis. 4) Inhibit the process of Akt phosphorylation, and shut down the survival pathway of cancer cells. Dammarane sapogenins activate multiple caspases and induce cancer cell apoptosis.

In some cancer cells, the caspase mechanism is not operative. To induce apoptosis, other mechanisms must be utilized. Dammarane sapogenins raise high levels of free radicals inside cancer cells causing apoptosis. It is well-known that free radicals may stimulate multiple genes and turn on a number of apoptosis pathways including caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms. Inhibit Akt phosphorylation and hinder the cancer cell survival pathway. Cancer cells are capable of maintaining the survival pathway active by disabling some controlling element such as the PTEN gene. Akt is activated through the process of phosphorylation. Activated Akt may enhance the proliferation of cancer cells, and also can inhibit apoptosis. Therefore, Akt plays a pivotal role in cancer cell survival.

Dammarane sapogenins as a potential chemo sensitizer can work with other anti-cancer agents to enhance the efficacy of treatment and overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy through the following mechanisms: 1) P-gp protein is located in the cancer cell membrane and functions as a pump that continuously pumps out any anti-cancer drugs from the inside of cancer cells. Thus, P-gp lowers the amount of drug inside of the preventing killing. Among all of the other drug resistant mechanisms, over-production of P-gp protein by cancer cells is one of the most important. Dammarane sapogenins can effectively inhibit the function of P-gp protein to allowing much more drugs accumulation inside cancer cells. 2) Dammarane sapogenins can influence the metabolism of P450s and maintain a higher level of anti-cancer drugs in our body by influencing the drug metabolizing system in the liver. Also it has been found that dammarane sapogenins interact with some P450s. In particular, they inhibits the metabolic activity of CYP3A4, 2C9, 2C19, and 2B6, enzymes commonly involved in metabolism of many anti-cancer drugs.

Prevention is the ultimate approach in the battle against cancer. Dammarane sapogenins arrests the cell cycle in malignant cells and induce differentiation at low concentrations, inhibit P450s and inhibit estrogen receptive breast cancer growth. This process is further achieved with the synergy of other phytochemicals present in the flower male catkins. Numerous studies have shown that dammarane sapogenins and derivative compounds can arrest the cell cycle at the G1 phase at low concentrations. In addition, at low concentrations, dammarane sapogenins induce malignant cell differentiation to the benign form and eventually cause those cells to die with prolonged treatment. May prevent any potential cancerous cells from growing into a tumor.

Dammarane sapogenins compete with estrogen for estrogen receptors. Therefore, they prevent estrogen from binding to the receptors for their tumor stimulating effects. It completely blocked growth of the tumor even in the presence of high levels of estrogen. In addition, when dammarane sapogenins were used in combination with tamoxifen, a significant potentiating effect of the latter on killing breast cancer cells occurred. There are no immuno suppression side effects like that of conventional chemotherapy not any or toxic effects from the use of dammarane sapogenins. Dammarane is the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. The endothelial Cells are important in affecting the apparent reduction of toxic oxygen products derived from polymorphonuclear leukocytes attached to their surface.

Contraindications: the inhibitory effect of dammarane sapogenins also raises a concern when using it together with other drugs. This is because some anti-cancer drugs rely on P450s to metabolize them into effective compounds. In those cases, dammarane sapogenins cannot be used. Also cannot be used with western drugs anticoagulants.

Side Effects: When dammarane sapogenins are used together with other anti-cancer drugs they potentiate its effectiveness, they may increase the side-effects of that drug at its full dosage. Should be used with caution in the presence of other chemotherapeutic drugs. Clinically, it is suggested to avoid taking both at the same time.

All references on Dammarane Sapogenins Studies: Many thank you for the extensive research done by William Jia, PhD, Faculty of medicine, University of British Columbia.

Dammarane identification on Birch was done by: Pacific Ocean Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, USSR Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok. Translated from Khimiya Prirodnykh Soedinenii, No. 3, pp. 325–341, May–June, 1988.


Cardiovascular-Neurological System:


Restores the nerves, brain and heart, balances the circulation. Reduces the micro viscosity of the blood. Anticoagulant.


ENT-Immunology-Infectious-Diseases:


enhances immune potential, Pollinosis, reduced the eosinophils infiltration in nasal mucosa, and significantly improved pulmonary function during the pollen seasons. Pollen and Hay fever, Asthmatic allergies, Pollen rhinoconjunctivitis. Pollen nanoparticles modulate an ongoing Th2 response in the BALB/c as demonstrated by down-regulation of IgG1 and production of IFN-gamma and IL-10. A novel allergen of birch pollen. Bet v 7, belonging to the cyclophilin family. Because cyclophilins are highly conserved proteins over the phylogeny, it is postulated that Bet v 7 is a member of a new family of panallergens. Sore throat, itchy throat, Laryngitis. Antiviral Activity of dammarane saponins Against Herpes Simplex Virus I. Oral administration of recombinant birch pollen allergen is an effective way to prevent allergen-specific T- and B-cell responses in a TH2 model.

Polymorphonuclear cells, are of three types: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.

1. Neutrophils fight bacterial infection. They form pus and are the chief ingredient of an abscess. See band cells.
2. Eosinophils are cells which are strongly related to allergy and the recognition of foreign things in the body such as parasites.

3. Basophils are cells that are also part of the allergy and parasite recognition system.
Dammarane the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells in relationship to being anti allergies since it will inhibit elevated eosinophils. Dammarane is an “adaptogen” to mean an agent that raises the body’s ability to resist stress by countering undesired stressors, whether physical, chemical, emotional, or biological. Adaptogen Phytochemicals: Beta-sitosterol, Betulin, cucurbitacins, dammarane, flavan glycosides, flavonoids, glucopyranosides, hydroxylated fatty acids, lignans, octadecadienoic acid, oxylipins, phenylpropanes, ecdysteroids, phytosterols, prenylated flavonoids, schizandrin, sesamin, syringaresinol, syringin also known as Eleutheroside B, triterpenoid saponins.

All adaptogens contain antioxidants, but antioxidants are not necessarily adaptogens and that is not proposed to be their primary mode of action. It is claimed that adaptogenic substances like Betulin are unique from other substances in their ability to balance endocrine hormones and the immune system, and they help the body to maintain optimal homeostasis. Adaptogens are proposed to have a normalizing effect on the body and to be capable of either toning down the activity of hyperfunctioning systems or strengthening the activity of hypofunctioning systems. However, they are also believed to be functional at the level of allostasis, which is a more dynamic reaction to long term stress, lacking the fixed reference points of homeostasis. By mixing the White birch flower male catkins with another part of either Silver Birch buds which contains Betulin or White birch embryonic bark which contains the most Betulin you could be mixing three to four different adaptogens making it so powerful and much more effective.

Adaptogens are thought to normalize the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, an intricate system of direct and indirect feedback mechanisms that regulate, most notably, the body’s reaction to stress. The HPA axis also plays a major part in the immune system, the process of digestion, energy usage, mood, and sexuality. The HPA is controlled by hormones, the same chemicals that tend to be altered when the body experiences stress.

Desensitization to pollen allergies posology should be 1 drop sublingual 1 time per day as long as they are no allergic symptoms then increase to 1 drop sublingual 2 x a day and increase gradually as long as they are no allergic symptoms present up to 3 drops 3 x a day in the effective desensitization to pollen. The No-Shots method of sublingual immunotherapy. Never increase till there is tolerance and symptom free. Oral immunotherapy works similarly to traditional immunotherapy, except the allergen extract is administered as an oral droplet. Doses and treatment duration are generally the same as traditional immunotherapy. Oral immunotherapy has shown to be beneficial in many patients. Immunotherapy begins when the body is exposed to a very low concentration of the allergen. The dosage is then slowly increased over a long period of time. As the concentration is increased, the body’s immune system becomes less sensitive to the allergen.

Warning: this desensitization must be initiated outside of allergy season best to start 30 to 60 days prior. Also it must be noted that the flower male catkins in the embryonic state contains only the genetic information of the future full spectrum pollen representing a lesser amount and therefore safer. Also in the embryonic stage it is not isolated and contains a synergy of other phytochemicals making it ideal for the support of allergies thru out the year like dust and mold and food allergen by blocking histamine in the gut before it cause an allergic response how great is this? Contains: Quercetin which serves as a natural antihistamine. Potent Sterols Brassinosteroids, SODsuperoxide dismutase, the tetracyclic terpene steroid-like dammarane structures.


OB GYN/ Reproductive System:


Menopausal Depression with lowered libido, Female Sterility. Estrogen dominance conditions; Breast Cancer, Adenomyosis, Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids.


Neurological-Nervous System:


Dammarane preserved the levels of catalase Neuroprotective. Dammarane inhibits beta-amyloid peptide production and methods for treating or preventing a pathological condition, particularly, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease). Multiple sclerosis. Antidepressant. Dammarane inhibited decreases in glutathione reductase in glutamate-injured cells. Furthermore, the dammarane derivatives reduced the content of intracellular peroxide in glutamate-intoxicated cells. Finally, they inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde, a compound produced during lipid peroxidation, in glutamate-insulted cells. These results show that the dammarane derivatives, MA-1 I and PT-11, exert significant neuroprotective effects on cultured cortical cells by a mechanism seemingly distinct from that afforded by dammarane. As such, the dammarane derivatives may be efficacious in protecting neurons from oxidative damage caused by exposure to excess
glutamate.Dammarane a Superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. The interaction of tumor cells with PMNs could favor tumor cell spreading through the promotion of a tumor invasive phenotype. Polymorphonuclear cells stimulate the migration and metastatic potential in many cancer cells. Therapies aimed at depleting or blocking the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN or neutrophils) is partially successful in the treatment of neuroinflammatory conditions and in attenuating pain following peripheral nerve injury or subcutaneous inflammation including painful neuropathies.


Betulinic Acid Concentrate


“Oncophytoembryonic Therapy”

A wide broad-spectrum embryonic extract with many anticancer biological activities, more specifically a method of treating, inhibiting and/or preventing malignant tumors of the colon, small intestine, stomach, breast, melanoma, glioblastoma, lung, cervix, ovary, prostate, oral cavity, larynx, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, endothelial cells, leukemia and myeloma using a herbal extract of White Birch embryonic internal and external bark with Sweet Almond embryonic husk and embryonic fruits rich in betulinic acid and other synergistic phtyochemical composition. An advantage of the extract is that the betulinic acid has low systemic toxicity. The extract inhibits Protein Kinase C activity of cancer cells and induces apoptosis, inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor to cause an antiangiogenic effect etc…

The World Health Organization (WHO) reports about 10 million new cancer cases are occurring around the world annually and this number is expected to reach 15 million by the year 2015.

Sweet Almond – Prunus Amygdalus (husk & fruit) the almond is botanically a stone fruit related to the cherry, the plum, and the peach. Betulinic acid showed antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 cells (GI50 = 0.27 μM), higher than the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil.

Morin (3, 5, 7, 2’, 4’-pentahydroxyflavone) P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ATPase activity Inhibitors. Potential cytotoxicity, Neuroprotective of the aging brain. Morin also has pleiotropic effects on kinase signaling pathways, including inhibition of activation of protein kinase B by mutagens (but not extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2) and activation of the stress pathway kinases, Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase. P38 kinase activation is functionally important since inhibition of its activation by the specific inhibitor SB202190 partially prevented cell cycle arrest by morin. Morin inhibits growth of oral carcinomas more effectively than normal oral mucosa cells. Growth inhibition by morin does not seem to be associated with induction of apoptosis in such oral cultures. Structure–function experiments have demonstrated that this tumor specificity absolutely requires the 2′, 4’ hydroxyl configuration in the B ring. Because 2′ hydroxylated flavonoids lacking hydroxylation in the A ring are not very common in nature, we have not yet been able to test whether hydroxylation at the 3, 5, or 7 positions of the A ring in morin are also required for its tumor specificity.

Studies have also identified the main kinase signaling pathways affected by morin at the growth inhibitory concentrations: in oral cells, activation of the JNK and p38 stress kinase pathways (implicated in growth arrest of cells in response to stress signals of various kinds and inhibition of the PK–B/AKT pathway (considered to be mainly involved with regulating cell survival seem to be mainly involved.

Morin inhibitory activity against LDL prevents atherosclerosis. Morin antibacterial Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (VEGF).

Morin Biological Activities: Antifeedant; Antiherpetic; Antispasmodic; Antitumor promoter; Antiviral; Myorelaxant; Neuroprotective; P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ATPase activity Inhibitors.


Drugs Interactions:


Sweet Almond – Prunus Amygdalus (husk & fruit) consumption may possibly enhance the drowsiness caused by benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and narcotics.


Oligo-elements:


Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:


B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-9 Folic acid, C, Calcium, E, B-9 Folic acid.


Phytochemical Constituents:


(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, 3-O-methylquercetin, 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-methylquercetin, 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, 3-O-methylquercetin, Kaempferol 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1®6)-b-D-glucopyranoside, Adenosine, Alanine, Alpha-Linoleic-Acid,Amadinantigenicity, Arginine, Aspartic-Acid, Benzaldehyde, Beta-Carotene, Betulinic acids, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid), and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (neochlorogenic acid), Catechin/Gallic Acid, Chlorine, Corosolic acid, Cresol, Cyanidin, Cystine, Daucosterol, Ethyl Acetate Eugenol, Flavonoids, Ferulic-Acid, Fiber, Geraniol, Glutamic-Acid, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Isorhamnetin Glucoside, Isorhamnetin, Kaempferol, Lauric-Acid, Leucine, Linoleic-Acid, Lysine, Maslinic acid, Methionine,Morin(2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one), Mucilage, Myristic-Acid, Naringenin 7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, Oleic-Acid, larger amount of Olein than Olive but devoid of chlorophyll, P-Coumaric-Acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Palmitic-Acid, Palmitoleic-Acid, Phenols, Phenylalanine, Phytic-Acid, 15 oligomeric procyanidins, (six dimers, seven trimers and two tetramers), Contains 20% Proteids (Vegetarian Proteins fractions); (albumins, especially globulins, glutelins and prolamins), Protocatechuic-Acid, Prunasin, Quercetin, Quercitrin,Resveratrol, Rutinoside, Serine, Sphingolipids Stearic-Acid, The sterols (3β,22E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol (stigmasterol) and (3β)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol (β-sitosterol), Tannin, Taxi Olin, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Uridine, Ursolic acid, Valine, Vanillic Acid. A new unusual sesquiterpene lactone, named amygdalactone, was isolated from the hulls of almond (Prunus amygdalus). The cytotoxic activity of amygdalactone a new unusual kauranoid diterpene glycoside, named amygdaloside. The phenols from the embryonic husks showed a higher antioxidant capacity of 58 %. Another proteid body, which is likewise soluble in water, is present in the almonds. It was named conglutin, by Ritthausen, while Comaille denominated it amandin.

Resveratrol also has anti-inflammatory properties. Yet another hypothesis is that resveratrol is able to stimulate sirtuin SIRT1. These proteins are hypothesized to promote longevity, and they may also explain the known longevity-enhancing effects of calorie restriction.


Sweet Almond – Prunus Amygdalus (husk) phytochemicals:


The lignocellulosic residues from the husks to optimize the yield of polyphenolic antioxidant compounds, which were quantified. The antioxidant power of these extracts was evaluated by the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the superoxide anion radical (O2), the hydroxyl radical (OH), or the peroxyl radical (ROO). The total phenolics content from husks showed potent antioxidant capacity of 58% reducing ROS species.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), one of three ligand-activated transcription factors named PPAR, has been identified as a molecular target for cancer chemopreventive agents. PPARγ was initially understood as a regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis while later on, it became evident that it is also involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, biological processes which are hallmarks of cancer. It is now established that PPARγ ligands can induce cell differentiation and yield early antineoplastic effects in several tumor types. Moreover, several bioactive natural products with cancer protecting potential are shown to operate through activation of PPARγ. Overall, PPARγ appears to be a prevalent target ally to cancer chemopreventive agents and therefore pursuing research in this area is of great relevance.

Triturated with water, sweet almonds produce a white mixture called emulsion or milk of almonds, which possesses a very remarkable analogy with animal milk; it contains a. great quantity of oil, kept in suspension in water by the presence of sugar, gum, and albumen, and is used as a demulcent and as a vehicle for other medicines. It is frequently employed in cough, diseases attended with intestinal irritation, and for mitigating the acrimony of the urine in calculus affections.

The word proteid is a noun. It is defined as a protein. The word is no longer in use in scientific terms. In the glossary of terms related to that branch of science which is known as physiology, a proteid is one of a class of principles which are amorphous and nitrogenous.

As a rule, proteids also contain such constituents as a small amount of sulphur, an albuminoid as blood fibrin, casein of milk, etc. Proteids are present in nearly all animal fluids and make up the greater part of the organs and tissues of animals.

Proteids are also important constituents of the tissues of vegetables. The word proteid is derived from the Greek word for first.
The words proteid and protein are almost similar. However both are defined as organic compounds which are made up of such elements as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and also traces of other elements. They are essential to life in food and as a part of every living cell. Proteinaceous and proteinous are the adjective form of the word protein.

Many, perhaps all, colorless plants can make the most complex foods (proteids), provided simpler foods and necessary salts are supplied. Only green plants, however, and of these only the green parts, can make carbohydrate foods, like sugars, starch and the like, out of carbon dioxide and water. When these foods have been formed in sufficient amount, the green plants can also produce proteids. Most plants make more food than they require. Reserve food is stored, usually in solid form, in special tissues. Nuts, peas, beans, and lentils are far richer than any kind of flesh in these elements, and they have this enormous advantage, that the proteids are pure, and therefore contain all the energy originally stored up in them during their organization. In the animal body these proteids which the animal has absorbed from the vegetable kingdom during its life, are constantly passing down to disorganization, during which descent the energy originally stored in them is released. Consequently what has been used already by one animal cannot be utilized by another. The proteids are estimated in some of this analysis by the amount of nitrogen contained therein, but in flesh-meat there are many products of tissue-change such as urea, uric acid, and creatine all of which contain nitrogen and are therefore estimated as proteids, though they have no food value whatever.

Nor is this all the evil; for this tissue-change is necessarily accompanied by the formation of various poisons, which are always to be found in flesh of any kind; and in many cases the virulence of these poisons is high. So you will observe that if you gain any nourishment from the eating of the dead flesh, you obtain it because during its life the animal consumed vegetable matter. You get less of this nourishment than you ought to have, because the animal has already used up half of it, and you have along with it various undesirable substances, and even some active poisons, which are of course distinctly deleterious.

Betulinic acid which is found in several species of plants, both have shown pro-PPARγ activities in cancer. Activation of PPARγ and downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclin D1. The human PPARγ gene consists of six coding exons located at chromosome 3p25.2 and extends approximately over100kb of genomic DNA. Apoptosis is believed to be a fundamental molecular mechanism through which PPARγ activators exert their action against cells which undergo malignant transformation. Moreover, apart from their direct inhibitory effects on cancerous transformed cells, PPARγ can also inhibit angiogenesis which is a prerequisite for tumor formation and growth. It is suggested that the antiangiogenic activity of PPARγ can be accomplished either by blocking the production the angiogenic ELR+CXC chemokines by cancer transformed cells or by inducing expression of the thrombospondin-1 receptor CD36 in endothelial cells. In addition, latest exciting data, which showed that PPARγ agonists were able to inhibit the canonical WNT signaling in human breast cancer, colonic epithelium cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, raises hopes that such agents can possibly block cancer initiation at a stem cell level.

References: V. G. Keshamouni, D. A. Arenberg, R. C. Reddy, M. J. Newstead, S. Anthwal, et al., “PPAR-gamma activation inhibits angiogenesis by blocking ELR+CXC chemokine production in non-small cell lung cancer,” Neoplasia, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 294-301, 2005.

H. Huang, S. C. Campbell, D. F. Bedford, T. Nelius, D. Veliceasa, et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands improve the antitumor efficacy of thrombospondin peptide ABT510,” Mol Cancer Res, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 541-550, 2004.

M. F. McCarty, J. Barroso-Aranda, F. Contreras “PPAR gamma agonists can be expected to potentiate the efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy through CD36 up-regulation,” Med Hypotheses, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 419-423, 2008.
M. Katoh “WNT signaling pathway and stem cell signaling network,” Clin Cancer Res, vol. 13, no. 14, pp.

Taxifolin (2R,3R)-3,3′,4′,5,7-Pentahydroxyflavanone; (2R,3R)-Dihydroquercetin: Andre Theriault and coworkers investigated how taxifolin affected lipid profiles in a study using human hepatoma cell-line, HepG2, as the model system. They had a few key findings:(1) taxifolin inhibits cholesterol synthesis in a dose- and time- dependent manner, (2) taxifolin suppresses HMG-CoA (Natural Statin) reductase activity and cholesteryl ester formation (3) taxifolin inhibits the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol and phospholipids and (4) taxifolin decreases the secretion of apoB into LDL-like particles.

Taxifolin.jpg
C15H12O7

Taxifolin also demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in in-vitro studies. Taxifolin down-regulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). It impeded the calcium influx induced by fMLP (a receptor-mediated activator) or AlF(4)(-) (a G protein-mediated activator) and effectively inhibited the fMLP- or PMA-induced ROS production with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) less than 10microM, possibly through impairing the activation of NADPH oxidase. [4]

REFERENCES
[1] Morazzoni, P., Bombardelli, E. 1995. Silybum marianum. Cardus marianus Fitoterapia. 66:6-42.
[2] Krecman, V., Skottova, N., Walterova, D., Ulrichova, J., Simanek, V. 1998. Silymarin inhibits the development of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Planta Med. 64:138-142.
[3] Casaschi A et al, Inhibitory activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) by the flavonoid, taxifolin, in HepG2 cells: potential role in the regulation of apolipoprotein B secretion. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Oct;176(2):247-53.
[4] Wang YH Prevention of macrophage adhesion molecule-1 (Mac-1)-dependent neutrophil firm adhesion by taxifolin through impairment of protein kinase-dependent NADPH oxidase activation and antagonism of G protein-mediated calcium influx. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 15;67(12):2251-62.

The antitumor compound taxifolin (flavonoid). Also anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, Hypocholestoremic (statin) and anti-oxidant properties.

Taxifolin has also been shown to benefit cardiovascular health, the skin, cognitive function, inflammation, allergies and immunodeficiency, as well as the health of diabetics. Amongst others, research has demonstrated that taxifolin:
A potent antioxidant – more powerful than vitamin E or carotenoids. Reduces blood viscosity and improves capillary microcirculation in people with type II diabetes.

Inhibits pro-inflammatory activity of neutrophils, thus helping to protect the vascular system from diabetes-induced damage, strengthens blood flow in the retinal part of the eye, protecting against loss of vision through macular degeneration, prevents formation of cataracts by inhibiting activity of an enzyme in the lens; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal.
Lowers elevated blood pressure and regulates an electrical measurement associated with activation of the heart ventricles in patients with arterial hypertension, has blood pressure-lowering and anti-arrhythmia effects.

• Inhibits lipid peroxidation, a process which leads to atherosclerosis;
• Inhibits formation of apolipoprotein B, one of the main constituents of LDL;
• Provides protection to the brain and nerve cells by inhibiting the expression of enzymes which cause inflammation and also prevents inflammatory white blood cells from attacking and adhering to vulnerable areas of the brain.

References: Environ Mol Mutagen 2009,Jul,01;50(6):451-9; (PMID: 19326464) Publication Type: Comparative Study, Journal Article Makena, Patrudu S ; Pierce, Samuel C ; Chung, King-Thom ; Sinclair, Scott E; Department of Biology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN-38163, USA.


White Birch – Betula Pubescens ( embryonic internal bark and external):

Polycrest A Chemotherapeutic Agent without toxicity. The embryonic internal White Bark of Root mix with the Husk and embryonic Fruit of the Sweet Almond Tree is where betulinic acid is most concentrated. Stimulate the central nervous and neuro humoral (they increase the activity of estrogens) systems of organism, improve metabolism including activation of metabolism in cerebral tissue, restore activity of stagnant systems, regulate the activity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, stimulate the homogeny (increase the level of leukocytes), act as the over-all strengthening means, increase the resistibility to infectious diseases, possess antipyretic properties during the internal and local application, strengthen the cytostatic activity of antitumorigenic preparations, detains increase of tumors, causes their gradual regression and slows down the development of metastases, i.e. they themselves possess cytostatic action. In this case the health of patients considerably improves, their fitness for work is restored, and general tone rises.

A wide broad-spectrum embryonic extract with many anticancer biological activities, more specifically a method of treating, inhibiting and/or preventing malignant tumors of the colon, small intestine, stomach, breast, melanoma, glioblastoma, lung, cervix, ovary, prostate, oral cavity, larynx, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, endothelial cells, leukemia and myeloma using a herbal extract of White Birch embryonic internal and external bark with Sweet Almond embryonic husk and embryonic fruits rich in betulinic acid and other synergistic phtyochemical composition. An advantage of the extract is that the betulinic acid has low systemic toxicity. The extract inhibits Protein Kinase C activity of cancer cells and induces apoptosis, inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor to cause an antiangiogenic effect etc…


Oligo-elements:


Co, Cu Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:


A, B-1, B-2, Calcium, E, Inositol.


Phytochemical Constituents:


1-O-galloyl-D-glucopyranose, t-5-Caffeoylquinic (neochlorogenic) acid, t-5-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, t-3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid, 16 protein-bound Amino Acids; (L-histidine, L-arginine, L-threonine, L-valine, L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamic acid, L-glycine, L-alanine, L-proline, L-cystine and L-tyrosine). Alpha- and Beta-Amyrin, Auxins (IAA), Pentacyclic triterpenes Betulin, Betulinic acid, Betulin 3-caffeate, B-Sitosterol, Catechin-Gallic acid, Chlorogenic Acid, Diarylheptanoid glucoside Platyphylloside, Cytokinins (CK), Four new disaccharide glycosides, two of (−)-rhododendrol and two of platyphyllone, were isolated along with a new trisaccharide glycoside of (−)-centrolobol, Fatty acids hexadecanoic and octadecanoic,, Galactose, Gallotannins, Gibberellins (GA), Hyperoside, Isotachioside, Kaempferol,23 triterpenoids of the Lupane and Beta-Amyrin were identified, Lupeol, Luteolin, Meristems plant stem cells (PSC),Moronic acid and Betulinic acid showed significant anti-HIV activity potent anti-AIDS agents. Four Lignan glycosides lyoniside, nudiposide, (−)-isolariciresinol, 3 a-O-B-D-xylopyranoside. A new Oleanene-type triterpene, named betuloleanolic acid acetate and fernane-type triterpenes, namely Betufernanediol A andBetufernanediol B (isomers) have been isolated from the stem bark of embryonic Birch. Oleanolic acid, Quercetin glycosides, Methyl Salicylate, enhance splenic lymphocytes translate and activity of NK cell, antitumor. P-Coumaroylquinic Acid, Three new phenolic compounds (4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl-6-O-syringoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-6-O-syringoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 4-hydroxymethyl-2-methoxyphenyl-6-O-syringoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) and 15 known phenolic compounds (two phenyl glucoside esters, Phytosterol stigmast-5-en-3-ol. Quercetin glycosides, Quercetin-3-O-a-L-(4ƒ-O-acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside, Quercetin-3_/O-ß-Dglucuronopyranoside, Quercetin-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranoside, Betulinic acid inhibited prostaglandin biosynthesis the same magnitude as acetyl Salicylic acid, Salidroside, Several Suberinic acids; Tachioside, SOD, Triterpene Squalene, Sucrose, Papyriferic acid and Pendulic acid, Xylitol. Fatty acids bound with a natural polymer suberin protects from mites and mold.


Biological Activities:


Induces Apoptosis; Aphidifuge; Cytotoxic; Hypolipemic; Anti-Actinic keratoses; Antioxidant; Antibacterial; Anticavity, Anticarcinomic; Anti-edema; Anti-fungal; Anti-flu; Antihypoxant; Anti-Lichen Planus; Antimalarial Leishmanicidal; Antimutagenic; Anti-necrotic general epithelium; Antipropecic; Antituberculosis; Anti-Lymphoma; Anti TNF; Anti-Typhoid Fever: Antiinflammatory; Antiviral HIV HSV1 HSV2 Hepatitis B-C; Antitumor Brain, Breast, Colon, Liver, Lungs, Lymphoma, Anti-hyperpigmentation (bleaching agent); Lipase Inhibitors; Liver cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase Inhibitors by amphiphilic triterpenoids; Nitric Oxide Inhibitor; Prostaglandin-Inhibitor; Prostate; Antimetastatic; Anti-Renal failure rejuvenator; Diuretic; Selective Inhibitor of Melanoma; Apoptotic; Bile expelling; Gepatoprotektornoy; Hepatoprotective; Inhibitors of recombinant HIV-1 integrase and HIV-1 replication in cell culture considered more effective than AZT.

Immunomodulator; induce the production of interferon’s; Topoisomerases Inhibitor; Actinic keratoses Birch bark contains a variety of apoptosis-inducing and anti-inflammatory substances.

Betulinic Acid Concentrate at a dosage of 50-100 drops 3 x a day.

Betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol) is an abundant naturally occurring triterpene. It is commonly isolated from the bark of embryonic bark about 30% of the White birch where it is more concentrated and smaller amount about 10 % is found in the buds of Silver birch trees. It can be converted to betulinic acid, which is biologically more active than betulin itself. Betulinic acid and its synthetic analogues exhibit anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anti-HIV activity as well as showing cytotoxicity towards a number of tumor cell lines. Even though betulin derivatives are most widely studied for their anticancer activity, also the anti-HIV effect is quite well characterized and it has been demonstrated that betulin can inhibit HIV entry to T cells by binding to the gp41, a HIV protein needed for the invasion of the virus into the cell. Betulin (Betulinol, Birch camphor, Lupendiol) – natural combination – pentacyclic triterpene alcohol of lupan line. Betulin does reduce cadmium toxicity by promoting the synthesis of certain proteins that protect cells against the exerted toxic effects of cadmium. Betulin anti-ulcer action of plant found to have a variety of effects on gastric secretion its action on the smooth muscles of the stomach and intestine.

It is a scientific fact that the chaga mushroom is an adaptogen that grows on white birch trees, extracting the birch constituents. Basic acting substances of the white part of birch bark triterpenic bonds – betulin, lupeol, betulinic acid, etc. – they possess anticancerous action, causing apoptosis (programmed death) of cancerous cells and transfer to chaga, thus strengthening its properties”. It has also been reported that 3- and 28-acylbetulin and 3,28-diacylbetulin derivatives have a fairly high level of anti-HIV activity in vitro. In particular, 3-O-glutaryldihydrobetulin wasmoreactiveinanin vitro assay than the anti-HIV drug zidovudin (AZT).

Betulonic acid, as an anti-cancer drug has generated considerable interest. The compound has exhibited up to 96 percent inhibition of prostate tumor growth acid arrested mitosis and induced apoptosis. Betulinic acid: a new cytotoxic agent against malignant brain-tumor cells medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells. Betulinic acid a new cytotoxic agent active against neuroectodermal tumor cells including neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma and Ewing’s sarcoma cells representing the most common solid tumors of childhood. Betulinic acid was reported as a selective inhibitor of human melanoma. The chaga mushroom is an adaptogen that grows on white birch trees, extracting the birch constituents and is used as a remedy for cancer. Alanine amide derivative of betulonic acid decreases the severity of necrotic and degenerative changes in the liver parenchyma, induced by cytostatic polychemotherapy. Betulonic acid exhibited no appreciable hepatoprotective effect under these conditions. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of selected acetylenic derivatives of betulonic acid were investigated using the CCl4-induced hepatitis and carrageenan-induced edema models, respectively. Lupinine esters can exhibit local anesthetic properties. It was concluded, that during postcytostatic period amides of betulonic acid with β-alanine moiety recovery leucocyte level in blood more rapidly, than betulonic acid. So these derivatives of BA may be interested of developers as potential hemoprotective drugs increases leucopenia.

Examinations conducted, in Russian institute of pharmacology, showed that the complex of substances forming part of white part of birch bark possesses high antimutagenic activity, capable of lowering the number of mutations in the chromosomes and the genes, the frequency of the appearance of hereditary changes in the organism. The antimutagenic action of the substances of white part of birch bark is connected with their capability for the suppression of free-radical oxidation, and in the ability of white part of birch bark to induce the production of interferon’s, which, as it’s known, positively influence the processes of reparation of DNA. The substances, contained in white part of birch bark contribute to the decrease of hypoxia and to increase of the stability of organism to the oxygen deficiency, being antihypoxant correcting the metabolism of cells.

Susceptibility of acyclovir-phosphonoacetic acid-resistant HSV-1, thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1, and wild-type HSV type 2 to moronic acid was similar to that of the wild-type HSV-1. When this compound was administered orally to mice infected cutaneously with HSV-1 three times daily, it significantly retarded the development of skin lesions and/or prolonged the mean survival times of infected mice without toxicity compared with the control. Moronic acid suppressed virus yields in the brain more efficiently than those in the skin. This was consistent with the prolongation of mean survival times. Thus, moronic acid as a major anti-HSV compound. Mode of the anti-HSV activity was different from that of ACV. Moronic acid showed oral therapeutic efficacy in HSV-infected mice and possessed novel anti-HSV activity that was consistent with that of the extract.

The antioxidant activity of betulin is connected with its direct effect on the ferments of the antioxidant protection, whose basic functional role consists of the decomposition of organic peroxides, first of all – peroxides of lipids, which play paramount role in the disturbance of the normal structure of biological membranes. Substances forming betulin possess the high gepatoprotektornoy and detoxifying activity, inducing the ferments of the rendering safe system of the liver, it normalizes bile secretion, reduces cholesterol level in the blood.

References: This study for Prostate cancer was funded in part by Marc Pharmaceuticals. NY July 24,2006. Dr. Saxena, scientists have been aware of the anti-cancer potential of the birch bark compound betulinol, and its derivative, betulonic acid, since the 1970s.
Co-authors included Dr. Arkadiy Bomshteyn, Dr. Meirong Hao, Ms. Eileen Kisilis, Dr. Meena Katdare and Dr. Ozgur Oktem — all of Weill Medical College of Cornell University; and Dr. Lei Zhu, of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute, New York City.

Betulinic acid (BA), a natural component isolated from embryonic internal White Bark of Root mix with the Husk and embryonic Fruit of the Sweet Almond Tree effectively induces apoptosis in neuroectodermal and epithelial tumor cells and exerts little toxicity in human or animal. At the University Clinic and Policlinic for Children and Adolescents in Germany: Here, they showed that BA-induced marked apoptosis in 65% of primary pediatric acute leukemia cells and all leukemia cell lines tested. When compared for in vitro efficiency with conventionally used cytotoxic drugs, BA was more potent nine out of ten standard therapeutics and especially efficient in tumor relapse. No cross-resistance was found between BA and any cytotoxic drug. Intracellular apoptosis signaling in leukemia tumor cells paralleled the pathway found in neuroectodermal cells involving caspases, but not death receptors. In isolated mitochondria, BA induced release of both cytochrome c and Smac. Betulin and Betulinic Acid, known for their ability to prevent cancer and even kill cancer cells by bringing about apoptosis of the tumor cells.

Betulinic acid actively inhibits the enzyme elastase to prevent/correct the loss of elastic fibers responsible for skin suppleness. It stimulates collagen synthesis and inhibits inflammatory processes by protecting against protein kinases. It inhibits melanogenesis to achieve skin lightening and improve skin tone and clarity.

The Journal of Immunology, 2003, 171: 3278-3286. Reported that Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the bark of the white birch tree, has been shown to be a selective inducer of apoptosis in cancerous tumor cells. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Because of the critical role of the transcription factor NF- B in growth modulatory, inflammatory, and immune responses, they postulated that BA modulates the activity of this factor. In this study they investigated the effect of betulinic acid on NF- B and NF- B-regulated gene expression activated by a variety of inflammatory and carcinogenic agents. Betulinic acid suppressed NF- B activation induced by TNF, PMA, cigarette smoke, okadaic acid, IL-1, and H2O2. The suppression of NF- B activation was not cell-type specific. BA suppressed the activation of I B kinase, thus abrogating the phosphorylation and degradation of I B . We found that BA inhibited NF- B activated by TNFR 1, TNFR-associated death domain, TNFR-associated factor 2, NF- B-inducing kinase, and I B kinase. Treatment of cells with this triterpenoid also suppressed NF- B-dependent reporter gene expression and the production of NF- B-regulated gene products such as cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metaloproteinase-9 induced by inflammatory stimuli. Furthermore, betulinic acid enhanced TNF-induced apoptosis. Overall, their results indicated that betulinic acid inhibits activation of NF- B and NF- B-regulated gene expression induced by carcinogens and inflammatory stimuli. This may provide a molecular basis for the ability of betulinic acid to mediate apoptosis, suppress inflammation, and modulate the immune response.

A group of NIEHS-supported researchers at the Texas A&M Health Sciences Center reports that betulinic acid might also be an effective treatment from prostate cancer. In a series of experiments using prostate cancer cell cultures and an animal model of prostate cancer, betulinic acid treatment decreased the growth of the cancer cells. Further work elucidated the mechanism of betulinic acid’s effect. The compound induced proteosome-dependent degradation of the specificity protein transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 in the prostate cancer cells. These factors are over expressed in many tumor types.

These results indicate the anti-tumor effects of betulinic acid are associated with specific degradation of specificity protein transcription factors resulting in the inhibition of blood vessel formation and the activation of proapoptotic responses in tumors but not in non-target tissues exhibiting low specificity protein expression. Ongoing studies with betulinic acid are investigating tumor-type similarities and more potent formulations for possible new chemotherapeutic agents.

References: Chintharlapalli S, Papineni S, Ramaiah SK, Safe S. Betulinic acid inhibits prostate cancer growth through inhibition of specificity protein transcription factors. Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 15; 67(6):2816-23

S Fulda, KM Debatin University Children’s Hospital, Ulm, Germany. Have identified BetA as a new cytotoxic agent active
against neuroectodermal tumor cells including neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma and Ewing sarcoma cells, representing the most common solid tumors of childhood. RESULTS: BetA induced apoptosis by a direct effect on mitochondria independent of accumulation of wild-type p53 protein and independent of death-inducing ligand/receptor systems such as CD95. Mitochondrial perturbations on treatment with BetA resulted in the release of soluble apoptogenic factors such as cytochrome c or AIF from mitochondria into the cytosol, where they induced activation of caspases. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 or Bcl-X (L) that blocked loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from mitochondria also conferred resistance to BetA. Most importantly, BetA exhibited potent antitumor activity on neuroblastoma cells resistant to CD95- or doxorubicin-triggered apoptosis and on primary tumor cells from patients with neuroectodermal tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, BetA may be a promising new agent in the treatment of neuroectodermal tumors including neuroblastoma in vivo.

Betulinic acid induces apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K-562 without altering the levels of Bcr-Abl

D. V. Raghuvar Gopala, Archana A. Narkara, Y. Badrinathb, K.P. Mishrac and D.S. Joshid
Laboratory Nuclear Medicine Section, Isotope Group, BARC, C/o Tata Memorial Hospital
Annexe, Jerbai Wadia Road, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India
Department of Medical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India
Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India
Molecular Biology and Agriculture Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India
Received 8 March 2004; revised 23 June 2004; accepted 28 June 2004.

Betulinic acid (BA), a plant derived triterpenoid, isolated from various sources shows cytotoxicity in cell lines of melanoma, neuroectodermal and malignant brain tumors. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by Philadelphia chromosome (Bcr-Abl), a molecular abnormality leading to the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity that provides growth and survival advantage to the cells. Present study describes the cytotoxicity of BA on human CML cell line K-562, positive for Bcr-Abl. The decrease in the viability of K-562 cells treated with BA at different concentrations and time intervals was assessed using MTT assay. Cell death induced by BA was determined to be apoptotic as measured by FACS analysis of PI stained nuclei, PS externalization by Annexin-V fluorescence and characteristic DNA fragmentation. DiOC6(3) fluorescent probe determined alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). RT-PCR confirmed the expression levels of Bcr-Abl in controls and K-562 cells treated with BA. The rapid loss of MMP of K-562 cells upon treatment with BA shows the direct activation of apoptosis at the level of mitochondria, overcoming the resistance of the high levels of expression of Bcr-Abl.

Betulinic Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Glioma Cells: A Sequential Requirement for New Protein Synthesis, Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species, and Caspase Processing

Wolfgang Wick, Cornelia Grimmel, Bettina Wagenknecht, Johannes Dichgans and Michael Weller
Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, University of Tübingen, School of Medicine, Tübingen, Germany.

Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene, is an experimental cytotoxic agent for malignant melanoma. Here, we show that BA triggers apoptosis in five human glioma cell lines. BA-induced apoptosis requires new protein, but not RNA, synthesis, is independent of p53, and results in p21 protein accumulation in the absence of a cell cycle arrest. BA-induced apoptosis involves the activation of caspases that cleave poly(ADP ribose)polymerase. Interactions of death ligand/receptor pairs of the CD95/CD95 ligand family do not mediate BA-induced caspase activation. BA enhances the levels of BAX and BCL-2 proteins but does not alter the levels of BCL-xS or BCL-xL. Ectopic expression of BCL-2 prevents BA-induced caspase activation, DNA fragmentation, and cell death. Furthermore, BA induces the formation of reactive oxygen species that are essential for BA-triggered cell death. The generation of reactive oxygen species is blocked by BCL-2 and requires new protein synthesis but is unaffected by caspase inhibitors, suggesting that BA toxicity sequentially involves new protein synthesis, formation of reactive oxygen species, and activation of crm-A-insensitive caspases.

A pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene derivative of betulin (isolated from the bark of Betula alba, the common white birch) with antiinflammatory, anti-HIV and antineoplastic activities against Kaposi Sarcoma due to its effect on cytomegalovirus inhibition viral replication. Betulinic acid induces apoptosis through induction of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, resulting in the release of mitochondrial apoptosis factors, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation. Although originally thought to exhibit specific cytotoxicity against melanoma cells, this agent has been found to be cytotoxic against non-melanoma tumor cell types including neuroectodermal and brain tumor cells. Betulinic acid is also known to augment the inhibitory effects of vincristine on growth of lung tumors and metastasis. Mitochondrial drug-targeting strategies will open up avenues for manipulating mitochondrial functions and allow for selective protection or eradication of cells for therapeutic gain in a variety of diseases. Mitochondria regulate cell death by apoptosis that has led to the development of mitochondria-directed drugs designed to trigger apoptosis in cancer cells.

Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth Factor-induced in vitro Angiogenesis via the Modulation of Mitochondrial Function in Endothelial Cells

Ho Jeong Kwon1,4, Joong Sup Shim1, Jin Hee Kim1, Hyun Young Cho2, Young Na Yum2, Seung Hee Kim2 and Jaehoon Yu3
1Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, Sejong University, 98 Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143–747, Korea2National Institute of Toxicological Research, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5 Nokbeon-dong, Eunpyung-gu, Seoul 122–704, Korea3Life Science Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 136–650, Korea

Betulinic acid (BetA), a pentacyclic triterpene, is a selective apoptosis-inducing agent that works directly in mitochondria. Recent study has revealed that BetA inhibits in vitro enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase N (APN, EC 3.4.11.2), which is known to play an important role in angiogenesis, but the anti-angiogenic activity of BetA has not been reported yet. Data presented here show that BetA potently inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced invasion and tube formation of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) at a concentration which had no effect on the cell viability. To access whether the anti-angiogenic nature of BetA originates from its inhibitory action against aminopeptidase N (APN) activity, the effect of BetA on APN was investigated. Surprisingly, BetA did not inhibit in vivo APN activity in endothelial cells or APN-positive tumor cells. On the other hand, BetA significantly decreased the mitochondrial reducing potential, and treatment with mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitors attenuated BetA-induced inhibition of endothelial cell invasion. These results imply that anti-angiogenic activity of BetA occurs through a modulation of mitochondrial function rather than APN activity in endothelial cells.

Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells by directly activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through a p53- and CD95-independent mechanism.

1. Oncological activity – it is a selective factor slowing the development of tumors by causing the APOPTOSIS process, i.e. the process of self-destruction of the cancer tissues. This is a highly organized morphological process of specific hormonal, enzymatic events and synchronized activations and deactivations of particular genes responsible for the self destruction of the degenerated tissues. It has been verified in the case of womb, breast and ovarian cancer, glioma, sarcoma, myeloma, malignant melanoma, and lung cancer. Scientific literature mentions the possibility of its application in case of the colon, prostate, stomach cancer and others.

2. Virostatic activity – stops the reproduction of viruses preventing the change in the genetic code of the infected tissue. Various sources from around the world also mention a beneficial activity of the betulinic acid in case of HIV. Effects have been confirmed in the case of viral infections of the respiratory tract and cold sores.

3. Cholagogic activity – activates the protective activity of the liver, causes its regeneration in case of cirrhosis. Facilitates the removal of toxins.

4. Bactericidal activity – has been confirmed even in the case of infection with the staphylococcus aureus and pyogenic bacteria in long-lasting deep bedsores in the bed-ridden. Within four days of the application no bacterial presence has been noted and the bedsore began to heal, even though the patient remained in bed. After two weeks the previously planned skin grafts were abandoned, since further scarring of the wound occurred. The application of the preparation on fresh bedsores causes their regression.

5. Quickens the regeneration of tissues after burns – application of a methylated spirit solution of betulin and betulinic acid on a fresh second-degree burn with a complete loss of the epidermis (which means damage to the deeper tissues), has prevented infection and caused complete skin regeneration, without scars. The wounds have only been bathed with the above-mentioned solution with a 0.5% concentration every few hours. Serous exudates lasted three days, after which the wound scabbed. A complete regeneration of the epidermis followed within seven days of the burn (author’s personal experience). This has been confirmed by many other people with minor burns.

6. Strengthens the hair bulbs – provokes re-growth of hair in the case of alopecia areata (hair loss), in women with hair loss following childbirth, seborrheic alopecia, following chemotherapy, prevents hair loss. In these cases the concentration of the applied aqueous solution was 0.2%.

7. Acts as a filter against ultraviolet radiation – added to a cream (2%) it effectively protects the skin.
Highly absorbable PSC concentrated extract having broad-spectrum anticancer activity, more specifically a method of treating, inhibiting and/or preventing malignant tumors of the colon, intestine, stomach, breast, melanoma, glioblastoma, lung, cervix, ovary, prostate, oral cavity, larynx, liver, pancreas, kidney, bladder, endothelial cells, leukemia and myeloma using a herbal extract of the White Birch internal bark of root, which is rich in betulinic acid. An advantage of the extract is that the betulinic acid has low systemic toxicity. It stimulates Granulopoiesis, which is the formation of granulocytes within the bone marrow.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Polycrest All


Renal System:


Detoxifies the Kidneys, most intense Diuretic, Kidney failure, Renal Insufficiency, Gout, and Uricemia. UTI anti Staphylococcus and E-coli. Cystitis Urinary Lithiasis. Birch is an effective diuretic; its therapeutic uses include bladder stones, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, and water retention. Bladder infection you must use the betulinic acid concentrate 75-100 drops 3 x a day for 14-21 days.


Cardio Vascular System:


Myocardial Insufficiency, Lowers Blood Urea. Blood thinner. Lowers Hypertension when water retention is the cause. A glycoside in the Birch Bark decomposes to produce methyl salicylate, which is the natural forerunner of synthetic aspirin, and has been invaluable for relieving headaches and general, overall pain.


Hematology – Oncology:


Melanoma. PPARγ agonist, TNF – Tumor Necrosis Factor and NIGF – Nerve Growth Factor, p53 oncogene, anti-angiogenic activity of BetA occurs through a modulation of mitochondrial function rather than APN activity in endothelial cells, Adaptosis. Apoptotic, Topoisomerases Inhibitor. Protein Kinase Inhibitors by amphiphilic triterpenoids; Nitric Oxide Inhibitor, Prostaglandin-Inhibitor Prostate, Antimetastatic. Inhibit the growth of different kinds of tumors, Cancers of the brain medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cells, breast, colon, esophagus, lymphoma, stomach, non-small cell lung carcinoma, selective inhibitor of human melanoma and other skin cancers. Has exhibited up to 92 percent inhibition of prostate tumor growth.


Immunology Infectious Diseases:


high in betulinic acid. This phytochemical, isolated from birch trees, demonstrates significant immune-supporting actions and has an affinity for tissues that have a low pH. Specifically splenic lymphocytes translate and activity of NK cell, antitumor, Increases WBC’s and Interferon production. Adaptogenic. Typically, unhealthy joint tissue will maintain a lower pH, attracting this potent phytochemical to that area; supporting healthy immune function where it is needed most. Anti-HIV will lower HIV PCR viral load effectively, also very effective in reducing Hepatitis C PCR viral load, Anti HSV -1 and HSV-2, The interferon-inducing activity of birch bark extract containing betulin and its effect on hepatitis C virus (HCV). Anti-Malaria, Human Papillomavirus, Antibacterial, Anti-staphylococcal. Mycobacterium smegmatis. Inhibitors of recombinant HIV-1 integrase and HIV-1 replication in cell culture considered more effective than AZT.


Digestive System-Hepatology:


contributes to the cicatrisation of stomach ulcers and duodenum, manifesting effects on gastric secretion its action on the smooth muscles of the stomach and intestine. Anti-necrotic of the stomach, esophagus, small intestines and colon epithelium. Stimulate digestive system and the excretory system. Normalizes bile secretion, reduces cholesterol level in the blood, Gepatoprotektornoy, Hepatoprotective Expels worms and parasites. Clinical studies indicate that Betulinic acid does reduce both alcoholic intoxication and hangover intensity. Hepatoprotective effects of betulin and betulinic acid against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in hepG2 cells have also been reported. Dyspepsia lowers cholesterol antitumor colon and rectal
References A. Szuster-Ciesielska and M. Kandefer-Szerszen, Pharmacol. Rep. 2005, 57, 588–595.


Muscular Skeletal System:


Osteoporosis post menopausal. Tendonitis, Gonarthrosis (knee arthritis), Coxarthritis (osteoarthritis), Consolidation of fractured bones. Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Gout, and generalized muscle pain analgesic. Antiinflammatory, Rheumatism, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gout and helps to ease the pain of swollen and painful joints. Birch bark extracts can be applied directly as a poultice with ace bandages or prior to a cast, for broken fractures will heal twice as fast by consolidating the bone.


Pulmonary System:


Anti-Tuberculosis


Dermatology:


Warts (topical and systemic use), Chloasma (topical use). Actinic keratosis, Alopecia, precocious male pattern baldness. Detoxifies the skin especially the scalp. Lichen Planus. Scabies, Warts and excellent for wound disinfectant. Great relief for bruises, burns, eczema, skin eruptions (boils and sores), rheumatism and all types of psoriasis. Great for psoriatic arthritis.


Dental:


Xylitol Gum

Extracted from the bark of Birch trees

Dental benefits discovered in Finland in 1970

5 carbon sugar molecule

Reduce levels of S mutans

Non cariogenic

5-10 grams/day = 30%-85% reductions in caries

Chew for 5 minutes after each meal