Stem cells are un-programmed cells in the human body that can be described as “shape shifters.” Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew: to divide and create two cells, each identical to the original. These cells have the ability to change into other types of cells. Stem cells are at the center of a new field of science called regenerative medicine. Because stem cells can become bone, muscle, cartilage and other specialized types of cells, they have the potential to treat many diseases, including Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, diabetes and cancer. Eventually, they may also be used to regenerate organs, reducing the need for organ transplants and related surgeries.
There are three types of stem cells: Totipotent, Pluripotent, and Multipotent.
Totipotent stem cells are cells, which are capable of forming every type of body cell. Each totipotent cell could replicate and differentiate and become a human being. All cells within the early embryo are totipotent up until the 16-cell stage or so. A single totipotent stem cell can grow into an entire organism and even produce extra-embryonic tissues.
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, or even extraembryonic tissues. For example, a plant cutting can be used to grow an entire plant. Human development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and creates a single totipotent cell. In the first hours after fertilization, this cell divides into identical totipotent cells. Approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these totipotent cells begin to specialize. Totipotent cells have total potential. They specialize into pluripotent cells that can give rise to most, but not all, of the tissues necessary for fetal development.
Pluripotent stem cells cannot grow into a whole organism, but they are able to differentiate into cells derived from any of the three germ layers. In cell biology, a pluripotent cell is one able to differentiate into many cell types. In the members of Kingdom Animalia, pluripotent stem cells which can develop into any of the three major tissue types: endoderm (interior gut lining), mesoderm (muscle, bone, blood), and ectoderm (epidermal tissues and nervous system). Pluripotent stem cells can eventually specialize in any bodily tissue, but they cannot themselves develop into a human being.
Multipotent (also called unipotent) stem cells can only become some types of cells: e.g. blood cells, or bone cells. Although limited in number, but multipotent stem cells can give rise to several other cell types. An example of multipotent cells is hematopoietic cells—blood stem cells that can develop into several types of blood cells, but cannot develop into brain cells. At the end of the long chain of cell divisions that make up the embryo are terminally differentiated cells—cells that are considered to be permanently committed to a specific function.
Plant Stem Cells
Plant Stem Cells are also called meristems, these are found in the buds and growing tips of roots of plants. Plant Stem Cells Therapy is Pluripotent and Multipotent Stem Cells. Embryonic Phytotherapy is the scientific use of embryonic plants to protect, nourish and support the human body. Embryonic plants contain embryonic plant stem cells whereas adult plants contain only adult plant stem cells and have tested and proven inconsistencies. For more information on the differences between embryonic plants and adult plants see our Differences page.
Embryonic plant stem cells are naturally adaptive. Once entering a human blood stream undifferentiated cells becomes differentiated and become specialized, which is why PSC® single embryonic plant extracts are “bipolar in their actions” more often than not. A embryonic plant extract that has anticoagulant action may very well be an anti-hemorrhaging at the same time because they are present with plant stem cells which gives them the ability to adapt and become specialized.
For more information, click to read Dr. Marie Gabrielle A. Laguna’s What Are Plant Stem Cell’s.