CRAMP BARK – VIBURNUM OPULUS

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Part Used:


Embryonic Bark

Viburnum Opulus is a large bush that is often grown ornamentally for its attractive white flowers. It is native to northern Asia and Europe. The American variety of V. opulus (also known as V. trilobatum) has edible red berries while the European variety bears bitter fruit. An extensive study of Viburnum botany and pharmacognosy was published in 1932. A large bush or small tree (to 12 feet) with spreading branches which can be found in damp, humid woods. Native to Europe, northern Africa, and northern Asia. Leaves are broad, deeply divided into 3 or 5 broad pointed lobes with coarse toothed margins and being hairless and shiny on slender leaf stalks and having 2 or more glands at the top and fringe-like appendages at the bottom. Flowers are small and white, appearing in cymes, the sterile outer flowers being somewhat larger than the interior flowers. Fruits are red (becoming black upon drying) globular drupes containing a single seed. The bark is collected in April and May.

Cramp bark common name represent its biological action being for cramps.


Oligo-elements:


Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, P, K, Se, Si, Ti, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:


Calcium.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Acetic AcidAlpha-Amyrin, Arbutin, AstragalinAuxins (IAA)Baldrianic Acid, Beta-Amyrin, Beta-Sitosterol, Capric Acid, Chlorogenic Acid, Cinnamic Acid, Citric Acid, Cytokinins (CK)Esculetin, Fatty acids, Gibberellins (GA)Hydroquinones, Malic AcidMeristems (PSC), Pectin, Phenolic, Protein, Coumarins (Scopoletin and Scopoline), Ursolic AcidSalicylates (SA)Sesquiterpenes; Viopudial and Viburtinal, Tannins;Catechin and Epicatechin,Valerianic Acid, Viburnine, Viz Viburtinoside A and B (acylated iridoid glucosides).

Ordinary valeric acid (baldrianic acid) is a mixture of isovaleric acid or isopropylacetic acid, (CH 3) 2 CH. CH 2 CO 2 H, and optically active methylethylacetic acid, (CH 3) (C 2 H 5) CH CO 2 H, which occur free or as esters in the vegetable and animal kingdoms. Viopudial, a Hypotensive and Smooth Muscle Antispasmodic. Experimental evidence indicates that viopudial’s mechanism of action is partly due to its effects on cholinesterase. In vitro demonstrations of a competitive inhibitory effect on both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase showed viopudial to be relatively weak when compared to know potent inhibitor, physosgitmine. Additional mechanistic effects, such as a direct musculotrophic action, may also be responsible for the overall activity.

References: Nicholson, J. A., Darby, T. D., and Jarboe, C. H., “Viopudial, a Hypotensive and Smooth Muscle Antispasmodic”, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, June 1, 1972, Vol. 110, Num. 2, pp. 457-461.

Viburtinal recently found to exhibit potent cytotoxicity against hepatoma cells and anti-tumors in vivo against Krebb II ascitic tumor.

Viburnine a glucoside that has uses in herbal medicine, particularly in the control of spasms and cramps.
Viz Viburtinoside A and B (acylated iridoid glucosides) hepatoprotective activity greatly reduces alanine aminotransferase (ALT) SGPT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) SGOT, lipid peroxide and nitric oxide levels.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


OB-Gyn:


P Remarkably effective for relaxing muscle tension and spasms in the uterus, thereby relieving menstrual cramps. A smooth muscle relaxant with similar properties to valerian, it focuses its action on the pelvic area (the ‘valerian of the uterus). Cramp bark is beneficial for ovarian and uterine cramps before and during menstruation. Prevents Threatened Miscarriages, Pelvic inflammatory disease, Fibroids, and Endometriosis, Dysmenorrhea prophylactically (before symptoms appear) by taking cramp bark the day before painful menstruation is expected. Hypomenorrhea. Menorrhagia, Metrorrhagia, Polymenorrhea, Brake thru bleeding, Scanty menses, After Birth Cramping and Internal Hemorrhage. For uterine and ovarian pains – two constituents that, because of their antispasmodic action on that of Viopudial in Cramp bark has cholinergic activity that can this phytochemical modulates estrogen levels and liver function. Scopoletin and Viopudial have been determined to be responsible for the uterine relaxant activity of V. opulus. Soothe menstrual cramps, may be the key to preventing miscarriage or preterm labor in high-risk pregnancies. Miraculous herbal agent for expectant mothers who are experiencing warning signs of miscarriage or preterm labor. To date, there have been no reports of negative effects on either a mother or a fetus when cramp bark is used to prevent premature births. While no herb should be relied on exclusively to protect a high-risk pregnancy, cramp bark can work as a complement to the treatment plan prescribed by your doctor or midwife.

Cramp bark works to slow labor because it contains two strong, natural antispasmodic chemicals, called scopoletin and viopudial. These two non-toxic constituents are quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and act directly to ease contractions in the uterus. This often causes the squeezing actions of the womb to either slow or stop, preventing the dilation of the cervix.


Musculoskeletal System:


P Antispasmodic Leg Muscle Cramps. Charlie Horse, Restless Legs Syndrome. Acts as a muscle relaxant, particularly of smooth muscle. In cases where arthritis has caused muscle tension and contraction Viburnum may bring relief from pain by relaxing the muscles and increasing blood flow to the area. Arthritic pain it is effective in treating cases of arthritis in which joint pain and weakness have led to severe muscular contractions.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:


P IBS, Colon cramping, Anal Cramps, Hiccups. Also relieves constipation by making the stools easier to pass of bipolar action on Diarrhea. Reduces the liver enzymes SGPT and SGPT hepato protective.


Urogenital:


P Strengthens the musculature of the bladder in urinary incontinence, eases the pain of painful bladder syndrome.


Neurological:


A Nervine, Lockjaw.


Pulmonary:


A in the respiratory system to help relax the airways in asthma.


Cardiovascular System:


A together with other herbs to help reduce high blood pressure. The administration of viopudial a Viburnum opulus component produces bradycardia, hypotension, and some decrease in myocardial contractility.