HORNBEAM – CARPINUS BETULUS

Click to purchase Hornbeam – Carpinus Betulus

Part Used:


Buds

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Carpinus betulus is a sturdy deciduous tree that is native to both Europe and Asia Minor and grows 40 to 60 feet tall. It has an interesting, smooth fluted bark that is steel gray. The dark green, ovate oblong leaves of the Carpinus betulus are alternate with a serrated margin and are 2 to 5 inches long by 1 to 2 inches wide. Their deep color, heavy texture, and impressive veins provide attractive summer foliage. Insignificant flowers, ranging from 1.5 to 3 inches in size, bloom in April. The fruit of this tree, a small, ribbed nutlet about 1 to 1.5 inches long, is held in a papery, leaf-like bract, either trilobed or simple oval. Its color changes from green to brown between September and October.

The wood of the Carpinus betulus is extremely hard and difficult to work with, making it more useful as a firewood than for any other purpose; however, its hardness has lent itself useful for making carving boards, blunt tools, cogwheels, butcher’s chopping blocks, and for other situations where a tough, hard wood is required. Hornbeams yield a very hard timber, giving rise to the name ironwood.

The buds and leaves are haemostatic, used in external compresses to stop bleeding and heal wounds. Distilled water made from the leaves is an effective eye lotion.

Bach flower applications: Weariness at the thought of what lies ahead. It would be needed by those who feel lethargic, unenthusiastic, or depressed at the thought of their day’s work. The positive quality of this remedy is the feeling of greater enthusiasm and interest in life. For people who lack courage. These applications also apply to Plant Stem Cell Therapy.


Abstracts of Published Research on Hornbeam – Carpinus Betulus:


1. [Planta Med. 2009 Jul 3.[Epub ahead of print] In Vitro Anticancer Potential of Tree Extracts from the Walloon Region Forest.Frédérich M, Marcowycz A, Cieckiewicz E, Mégalizzi V, Angenot L, Kiss R.


Oligo-elements:


Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Se, Si.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Acetic acid,Tannins; Acertannin, Methyl Gallate antioxidants that are more effective than α-tocopherol.Aglycones (quercetol and myricetol),Apigenin, Asparagine, Auxins (IAA)BetulinBrassinosteroids (BR)Caffeic acid, Carbohydrates, Carpinontriols A & B, Catechins, Chlorogenic acid, Citrulline,Cytokinins (CK)Novel Diastereomeric Ellagitannins, Endophytic Fungi (Penicillium) a cytochalasin which inhibit various cell processes, Flavonoidscontent 10%, Gibberellins (GA)Hydroxycinnamic acid, HyperosideJasmonic acid (JA)Kaempferol, Lutein Epoxide (Lx) Cycle, Luteolin,Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Methyl Gallate antioxidants that are more effective than α-tocopherol,Methyl-salycilate heteroside, Myrecetin, n-alkanes, Phenylalanine, Novel Pneumocandin B0 Antifungal drug, Proanthocyanidins 0.180 %, Quercetin, Rutoside 3.4%, Salicylates (SA)Steroidal sapogenins, Two new Hydrolyzable Tannins Carpinerins A and B discovered by (T. Ono and H. Shigemori 2009 Heterocyclic compounds). Tenuipesineand Trichothecane the chemical transformation of the coexisting trichothecane, 4beta-acetoxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-3alpha,15-diol a New Antibiotic from the Entomopathogenic Fungus. Viscotoxin and Lectins cytotoxic holds interest as a potential anti cancer agent because extracts derived from it have been shown to kill cancer cells in vitro stimulating activity of the immune system. breast cancer as a common disease in most societies; K562 cell line was used to show the effect of the extracts on leukemia.

Two new Diarylheptanoids (inhibit iNOS and COX-2 responses anti-inflammatory activity), Carpinontriols A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the buds of Carpinus Betulus, along with the known diarylheptanoid, Casuarinondiol (3), and five known compounds, (+)-catechin (4), methyl gallate (5), methyl gallate 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), methyl gallate 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7), and methyl gallate 3-O-β-d-(6‘-O-galloyl)-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectral methods. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 4−6 and 8showed radical-scavenging activity in the DPPH assay.

References: Tamas Mircea, Pop Carmen, Pop Anda. University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Haţieganu” Cluj-Napoca Faculty of Pharmacy, 12, I. Creangă Str., Cluj-Napoca Volume 5, 2008.


Endophytic Fungi:


In the search for new antibiotics to overcome the growing human problems of drugs resistance in microorganisms and appearance of new diseases has been rapidly increasing around the world. Realizing the capability of microorganisms to produce diverse bioactive molecules and the existence of unexplored microbial diversity, research is underway to isolate and screen microbes of diverse habitat and unique environment for discovery of novel metabolites. The plant hormones produced by the endophytic fungi are important materials that may be used to reveal the mechanism of endophytic fungi stimulating the growth of medicinal plants. Isocoumarins Isolated from the Endophytic Fungus.

Since the discovery of endophytes in Darnel, Germany in 1904, various investigators have defined endophytes in different ways which is usually dependent on the perspective from which the endophytes were being isolated and subsequently examined. Bacon and White give an inclusive and widely accepted definition of endophytes: “Microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects”. While the symptomless nature of endophyte occupation in plant tissue has prompted focus on symbiotic or mutualistic relationships between endophytes and their hosts, the observed biodiversity of endophytes suggests they can also be aggressive saprophytes or opportunistic pathogens. Both fungi and bacteria are the most common microbes existing as endophytes. It would seem that other microbial forms most certainly exist in plants as endophytes, but no evidence for them has yet been presented e.g. mycoplasmas, and archebacteria. The most frequently isolated endophytes are the fungi. It turns out that the vast majority of plants have not been studied for their endophytes. Thus, enormous opportunities exist for the recovery of novel fungal forms, taxa, and biotypes. Hawksworth and Rossman estimated there may be as many as 1 million different fungal species, yet only about 100,000 have been described. As more evidence accumulates, estimates keep rising as to the actual number of fungal species. For instance, Dreyfuss and Chappela estimate there may be at least 1 million species of endophytic fungi alone. It seems obvious that endophytes are a rich and reliable source of genetic diversity and novel, undescribed species.

References: Tan, R. X., and W. X. Zou. 2001. Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites. Nat. Prod. Rep. 18:448-459.Bacon, C. W., and J. F. White. 2000. Microbial endophytes. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, N.Y. Hawksworth, D. C., and A. Y. Rossman. 1987. Where are the undescribed fungi? Phytopathology 87:888-891.
Dreyfuss, M. M., and I. H. Chapela. 1994. Potential of fungi in the discovery of novel, low-molecular weight pharmaceuticals, p. 49-80. In V. P. Gullo (ed.), The discovery of natural products with therapeutic potential. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, United Kingdom.

Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes and medicinal benefits of their biological activities. The antioxidant capacities of the endophytic fungal cultures were significantly correlated with their total phenolic contents, suggesting that phenolics were also the major antioxidant constituents of the endophytes. Some of the endophytes were found to produce metabolites possessing strong antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti tumors biological activities. Endophytic Fungi howed highest zone of inhibition against Shigella flexneri, significantly effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and moderately effective against the fungal pathogens. This showed the broad-spectrum nature of the metabolite. Three Gram-positive bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), three Gram-negative bacteria i.e. Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp), Shigella flexneri (Sf), Escherichia coli (Ec) and two fungal pathogens i.e. Candida albicans (Ca) and Candida tropicalis (Ct). All the test pathogens were obtained from Institute of Microbial Technology (IMTECH), Chandigarh, India. References: Wu-Yang Huang1 , Yi-Zhong Cai2, Jie Xing3, Harold Corke2 and Mei Sun1. 9 November 2006.

  • (1) Department of Zoology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China
  • (2) Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China
  • (3) Republic Polytechnic, Woodlands Avenue 9, 738964 Singapore

Recent works have shown that two xanthophyll cycles operate simultaneously in several plant species: the ubiquitous violaxanthin + anteraxanthin + zeaxanthin (VAZ) cycle and the lutein epoxide (Lx) cycle. Lx is present in buds of many different plant species and leaf primordia are enriched in Lx compared with leaves. As a result, the Lx pool was higher than the violaxanthin (V) pool in several species. Although Lx can be potentially de-epoxidised in buds, light attenuation by scales inhibited the daily operation of the Lx cycle. This finding would imply that the Lx cycle is not involved in short-term reversible photoprotection in buds. However, a light-induced decrease in Lx was observed through the winter. (Functional Plant Biology 31(8) 815–823 doi:10.1071/FP04054 Published: 23 August 2004). Plants growing on hornbeam tree (Carpinus betulus) like Mistletoe were collected and primary phytochemical studies were performed on its air-dried powdered. An aqueous extract (MeOH-H2O with 2% acetic acid) along with a methanolic one were obtained using perculation. Also the plant juice was obtained by pressing.

Cytotoxicity of these extracts against a panel of cancer cells (Hela, KB, MDA-MB-468, K562 and MCF-7) were determined using colorimetric MTT assay.

Results showed that plant juice was most effective fraction against all cancer cells tested here (IC50 = 0.0316 mg); while IC50 of aqueous and methanolic extract were measured at 0.1 and 0.316 mg, respectively. These results suggest that alkaloids and huge compounds like viscotoxin and lectins extracted by press or aqueous solvents were probably responsible for cytotoxicity. Results also indicated that Hela cells were more resistant to cytotoxic substances and KB is more chemosensitive one. It can be concluded that Iranian mistletoe extract are cytotoxic against all cells tested and this effect closely depend on host tree and extraction methods.

References: Cytotoxicy evaluation of Iranian mistletoe on a panel of cancer cells: 4th world congress of Cellular and Molecular Biology. 2005; France – Poitiers Hojjat sadeghi-aliabadi, Nasrollah Ghasemi, Ali fatahi.
Plant volatiles in the sexual communication of Melolontha hippocastani: response towards time-dependent bouquets and novel function of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol as a sexual kairomone. In analogy to the term aggregation kairomone used for feeding-induced plant volatiles that attract both sexes of an insect, the term sexual kairomone is suggested to describe the novel function of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol in the sexual communication of M. hippocastani.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Adaptation Remedy!

Powerful Antioxidants


Pulmonary & ENT:


‘P’ Restores the Olfactory Epithelium System. Antibiotic – Antibacterial due to its Endophytic Fungi present on the plant Nasal Decongestant. Ensuring healing of damage mucosal surfaces and relieving respiratory spasm, Allergies, Cough – Antitussive, Sinusitis acute & chronic, Rhinopharyngitis, Chronic Bronchitis, Spasmodic Rhinitis, Epistaxis.Restores the superior nasal concha of the nasal passages dissolve in the mucus lining the superior portion of the cavity and are detected by olfactory receptors on the dendrites of the olfactory sensory neurons. This may occur by diffusion or by the binding of the odorant to odorant binding proteins. The mucus overlying the epithelium contains mucopolysaccharides, salts, enzymes, and antibodies (these are highly important, as the olfactory neurons provide a direct passage for infection to pass to the brain).


Cardio Vascular:


‘P’For Hyperpelidimia in Atherosclerosis, Good for intoxication of anticoagulant therapies, Uremia.Sleep Apnea Hypertension 10 drops 4 x a day the 4th time being bedtime sublingual.


Hematology Oncology:


‘P’ Powerful Aggregator of Blood Platelets. Increases platelets and their cytological quality (agglutination) for Thrombocytopenia, Antihemorraging. Good for intoxication of anticoagulant therapies. Endophytic fungi isolated from Carpinus betulus buds antitumor and antifungal activities against human gastric tumor cell line BGC-823 and the growth inhibition test against 7 phytopathogenic fungi.

References: 2005 Haiyan Li1, 2, Chen Qing3, Yanli Zhang3 and Zhiwei Zhao1
(1)Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bioresources, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming, P.R. China (2) Faculty of Biology and Chemistry Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 650093 Kunming, P.R. China (3) The Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pharmacology for Natural Products Research, Kunming Medical College, 650031 Kunming, P.R. China.


Infectious Diseases:


‘P’ Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal due to novel bioactive compounds endophytic fungi found in the buds of Carpinus Betulus.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:


‘P’ In hepatic insufficiency. Anti-H. pylori will also arrest the bleeding from peptic or duodenal ulcers.


Opthalmology:


‘P’ Optical properties Lutein Epoxide on regeneration of the optic nerve also excellent in Retinal bleeding of all sorts.


Musculoskeletal System:


‘A’ Chronic Polyarthritis & Peri-Arthritis Ankylosis.


Renal – Uro Genital System:


‘A’ Uricemia.


Dermatology:


‘A’ Hematomas secondary to low platelets.


Psychiatry:


‘A’ Tiredness & fatigue. Gets things done, but feels need to be strengthened. Hornbeam: This essence assists when mental weariness makes it difficult to face the day. Procrastination is often a result of this mental imbalance.

Warning: Do not use in Thrombocytosis.Do not use more than 9 drops per day on conditions with elevated platelets such has thrombocytosis or elevated PTT or fibrinogen.