LINDEN – TILIA TOMENTOSA

Click to purchase Linden Tree – Tilia Tomentosa

Part Used: 


Buds

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Tilia tomentosa is a moderately growing, deciduous tree that is native to western Asia and grows 30 to 40 feet tall. Its oblique-cordate, dark green leaves are alternately arranged with doubly serrated margins and are 2 to 5 inches long. The tree has smooth gray bark and heart-shaped leaves. Five-gray bark and heart-shaped leaves. The fragrant, creamy yellow flowers of this ornamental tree are in bloom from July to August and have a leaf-like bract 1.5 to 2 inches long. Loose, drooping clusters holding 7 to 10 flowers decorate the smooth, downy stems of this hardy shade tree. Following the bloom of the Tilia tomentosa are small, egg shaped fruits having the appearance of peas hanging attached to a leaf-like, greenish-yellow bract. The golden yellow fall leaves of this tree make attractive foliage.

Common uses of this tree include condiment, tea, chocolate substitute (from its ground fruits and flowers). The fiber obtained from the tree is used for making mats, shoes, and coarse cloth.

Very Important Note: The German Commission E monograph concluded that the linden flower is cardiotoxic. This is the reason I choose the buds which have not demonstrated to be cardiotoxic.

Abstracts of Published Research on Linden Tree – Tilia Tomentosa:
1. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994 Aug;44(1):47-53.
Isolation of pharmacologically active benzodiazepine receptor ligands from Tilia tomentosa (Tiliaceae). Viola H, Wolfman C, Levi de Stein M, Wasowski C, Peña C, Medina JH, Paladini AC.

Oligo-elements:
Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Ni, Se, Si, Zn.

Vitamins and Minerals:
C,E,K.

Phytochemical Constituents:

Afzelin, Alanine, Alpha-Pinene, Ascorbic-Acid, Asparagine, Astragalin, Beta-Amyrin, Caffeic-Acid, Chlorogenic-Acid, Cysteine, Cystine, Eugenol, Farnesol, Fiber, Geraniol, Geranyl-Acetate, Glutamic-Acid, Glycine, Hesperidin, Isoleucine, Isoquercitrin, Kaempferitrin, Kaempferol, Leucine, Limonene, Linalyl-Acetate, Linarin, Mucilage, Nerol, Nerolidol, P-Coumaric-Acid, Phenylalanine, Quercetin, Quercitrin, Scopoletin, Sesquiterpenes, Serine, Tannin, Taraxerol, Terpineol, Tiliroside, Tocopherol, Tyrosine, Valine, Vanillin, Xanthophyll.

Active benzodiazepine receptor ligands from Tilia tomentosa (Tiliaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 1994; 44…

Linden contains flavonoids (especially quercetin and kaempferol), caffeic and other acids, mucilage (about 3%), tannins, volatile oil (0.02-0.1 %), and traces of benzodiazepine-like compounds. The flavonoids improve circulation.

The major active constituents in linden are Farnesol, flavonoids glycosides, and a volatile oil. One study found that a complex mixture of compounds, primarily flavonoids, reduced anxiety in mice. Older clinical trials have shown that linden flower tea can help people with mild gallbladder problems (but not gallstones), upset stomach or dyspepsia, and excessive gas that cause the stomach to push up and put pressure on the heart (also known as the gastro-cardiac syndrome). Linden’s reputed antispasmodic action, particularly in the intestines, has been confirmed in at least 1 human trial.

Linden flowers act as a diaphoretic when consumed as a hot tea. Diaphoretics induce a mild fever, thereby possibly helping promote the immune system’s ability to fight infections. The fever usually does not go very high because the diaphoretic also causes sweating, the body’s natural way of lowering its temperature.

Contraindications: Do not use with SSRI antidepressant. Do not use in Elevated serotonin since it increases serotonin.

Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:

Polycrest all Parts Used: Buds not to be confused with the mild tea of its leaves. This is a very powerful bud that works in great depth, contrary to the leaves that are very mild in action.

Pediatric & Adult Nervous System:

Tilia is a Polycrest in pediatric nervous afflictions; Anxiolytic par excellence. Detoxifies the Nervous System especially nerves cells. Nervous Headaches & Migraines.Sesquiterpene called Farnesol which is antispasmodic and sedative. Ligands, which interact with benzodiazepine receptors. The Synergistic sedative actions of the combined phytochemicals constituents; Citral, Citronellal, Citronellol, Eugenol, Limonene, Nerol, Terpineol.

Note: Linden is the only bud capable of detoxifying nerve cells. I do not know of any other plant capable of doing what these buds can achieve over a long period of time; indispensable in today’s stressful world. Will balance a parasympathetic sympathetic nervous system. Asparagine serves as an amino donor in liver transamination processes. It is required by the nervous system to maintain equilibrium.

Psychiatry:

A Potent MAO-A and MAO-B Inhibitor. Active Benzodiazepine Receptor Ligands.For anguish which escalates as the day progresses to the level of causing insomnia. Increases the duration of Sleep. Obsessive tendencies. Spasmophilia. Equivalent to Diazepam tranquilizer.

Increases Serotonin Level.Glutamic acid helps to correct personality disorders and is useful in treating childhood behavioral disorders. Phenylalanine antidepressant It can be converted in the body to tyrosine, which in turn is used to synthesize two important neurotransmitters – dopamine and norepinephrine. Tyrosine antidepressant. In the adrenal gland, tyrosine is converted to levodopa by the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). TH is also the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of the catecholamine hormones dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine.

References: Czygan F-C. Linden (Tilia spec.) – Linden tree. Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie. Vol 18(4) (pp 242-246), 1997.

Viola H. Wolfman C. Stein M L D. Wasowski C. Pena C. Medina J H. Paladini A C. Isolation of pharmacologically active benzodiazepine receptor ligands from Tilia tomentosa (Tiliaceae). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 44 (1). 1994. 47-53.

Cardio Vascular System:

Cause Vasodilation. Anti-Inflammatory. Anti-Spasmodic. Anti-Plethoric. Very effective in heart palpitation. Reduces Cholesterol, Blood Urea & Uric Acid in Gout, Chronic Inflammation Anti-spasmodic. Increases Albumin, Atherosclerosis. Hypertension due to stress. Linden contains vitamin K; however, at typical dosage regimens, linden should not interfere with warfarin or related anticoagulant therapy. Scopoletin seems to regulate the blood pressure: when the blood pressure is high, scopoletin helps to lower it and when it is too low it can help raise it. Bipolar action.

GI – Digestive System:

Anti-Inflammatory Anti-Spasmodic. Sedative. Diaphragmatic Hernia, Colitis, Diarrhea, Acid Reflux, Gastritis, Gallbladder Sludge, Duodenum & Peptic Ulcers cause by Stress. Antibacterial and antifungal activity against organisms associated with stomatologic infections inhibitory activity against the growth of food borne pathogens. Tiliroside was the principle flavonol glycoside and showed the most potent activity. Astragalin and isoquercitrin also possessed strong activity have potent hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice.

References:Gonul S, Karapinar M. Inhibitory effect of linden flower (Tilia flower) on the growth of food borne pathogens. Food Microbiol. 1987; 4:97-100.

Folk medicine has employed linden as an antispasmodic. Animal studies in vitro using rat duodenum have supported this claim. The activity was inhibited by atropine and papaverine and increased by acetylcholine. The antispasmodic properties are attributed to p -coumaric acids and flavonoids in the plant.

References: Barnes J, Anderson L, Phillipson J. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals . 2nd ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2002:323-324.
Inhibitory activity against the growth of foodborne pathogens. Tricosane being the main component (21.5% and 31.3%). Isocyclocitral (15.3%) and hotrienol (11.5%) were characterized as the main oxygenated monoterpenes of T. tomentosa.

Linalool (13.1%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (17.7%) were the major constituents which have antimicrobial activity in T. tomentosa. considered as extremely adsorbent and useful against diarrhea and intoxications, as it acts in the same fashion as activated charcoal, absorbing some of the toxins. (Starek 2001; Gruenwald et al., 2000; Berdoncés, 1998).

Hepatology:

Hepatoprotective, Tiliroside is the principle flavonol glycoside and showed the most potent activity. Astragalin and isoquercitrin also possessed strong activity.

Renal – Uro Genital System:
Reduces uric acid in dietary induce Gout.

Endocrine System:

Reduces elevated cortisol level in the blood. Obesity; facilitates weight loss by reducing cravings due to anxiety pacifying method of coping with stress. Graves Disease, Hyperthyroidism, helps the palpitation but not anti-thyroxin like Bugle weed – Lycopeus Europaeus.

OB-Gyn:

Also helps to increase the elastic of the small veins in the abdominal region resulting in lessening the heavy blood flow caused by breaking off of the capillary walls for some women with endometriosis during menstruation.

Musculoskeletal System:
Cervical Arthrosis, sedative of the nerve.

Immunological System:

Antiallergic effect. Inhibit the histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction, relieve cough, catarrh of the respiratory tract. Treat sinus headaches and congestion. Stimulatory action on the proliferation of lymphocytes. Tilia extract exerted its stimulatory action on cell proliferation by acting as a partial agonist through peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. The immunomodulatory activity of coumarin scopoletin exhibits a cytostatic and cytotoxic effect on tumor lymphocytes. Tiliroside a flavonoid Anticomplement; Diaphoretic. Tiliroside showed very potent anti-complement activity on the classical pathway of the complement system, even higher than rosmarinic acid, which is a well-known inhibitor against the complement system.

References:
Anesini C, Werner S, Borda E. Effect of Tilia cordata flower on lymphocyte proliferation: participation of peripheral type benzodiazepine binding sites. Fitoterapia . 1999;70:361-367.

Manuele MG, Ferraro G, Barreiro Arcos ML, López P, Cremaschi G, Anesini C. Comparative immunomodulatory effect of scopoletin on tumoral and normal lymphocytes. Life Sci . 2006;79:2043-2048.

Barreiro Arcos ML, Cremaschi G, Werner S, Coussio J, Ferraro G, Anesini C. Tilia cordata Mill. Extracts and scopoletin (isolated compound): differential cell growth effects on lymphocytes. Phytother Res . 2006;20:34-40.

Yoshikawa M. Shimada H. Saka M. Yoshizumi S. Yamahara J. Matsuda H. Medicinal foodstuffs: V. Moroheiya: (1): Absolute stereostructures of corchoionosides A, B, and C, histamine release inhibitors from the leaves of Vietnamese Corchorus olitorius L. (Tiliaceae). Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 45(3). 1997. 464-469.]

Dermatology:

Topical Uses; Linden’s emollient quality has been used in lotions for itchy skin. One report discusses the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of Tilia species . Two main flavonoids, kaempferol and quercetin, in Tilia have potent anti-inflammatory activity.