MAIDENHAIR TREE – GINKGO BILOBA

Click to purchase Maidenhair Tree – Ginkgo Biloba

Part Used: 


Buds.

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Ginkgo biloba is a slow-growing, deciduous tree that grows about 80 to 100 feet tall. It is native to China and is thought to be the oldest living seed plant in the world. Its common name “Maidenhair Tree” refers to the similarity between the leaves of the ginkgo and those of the maidenhair fern. The bright green, fan-shaped leaves of the Ginkgo biloba are leathery, measuring 2 to 3 inches long, and appearing either solitarily or in clusters of three to five. Inconspicuous flowers bloom in spring and are followed by the bearing of its fruit. Male trees produce cones, and female trees produce yellowish plum-shaped pseudo fruits with foul-smelling meat. Inside these rounded fruits is a large, silvery-white seed. The nuts are edible and are consumed in many parts of the world. The light green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba are transformed into a pure dazzling yellow in the fall, before suddenly dropping to the ground in unison shortly thereafter. The tree is known to have very few problems with pests and diseases. The fine-grained, light-colored wood of the Ginkgo biloba is flexible and has a good shine. Numerous objects have been crafted from the plant: structures, sculptures, tea shelves, utensils, insect-proof cabinets, wooden tablets, family altars, chess boards, chess pieces, and chopping boards.

Phytosociology: Ginkgo disseminates neither spores (like the ferns) nor seeds (like the graminaceous ones) but something intermediary, namely the ovule. The ovule is the whole of the female reproductive cells, i.e., the oosphere (haploid) and nucleus. They are large ovules, stuffed substances of reserve, which Ginkgo drops on the ground rather tardily in season. With the higher pole of the ovule is constituted a mini cavity filled with liquid, or “pollinic room.” This room presents a tiny opening, the micropyle, which produces a viscous droplet to trap a grain of pollen if it is presented, and then the micropyle is closed.. Finally pollen germinates and produces true spermatozoids which swim towards the female cell and penetrate to amalgamate with it. This might very well explain why Ginkgo biloba helps in reproductive system and male erectile dysfunction and male and female infertility. Ginkgo is a tree of longevity like the Sequoia (Giant Redwood). The latest research indicates that the Ginkgo tree has been a part of the Earth’s environment for between 150 and 200 million years. Fossils of ginkgo have been found that date back to the Paleozoic era. With such a long history, no wonder it is an anti-aging agent.

Other uses: The light-colored wood of the tree has little economic value. It is light, fine grained, smooth, and flexible and has a silky shine. Its decay rate is slow. For a longtime it as been used for structures, sculptures, tea shelves and utensils for the Japanese tea ceremony, for Buddhist family altars, chess boards, chess men, tubs for brewing sake, chopping boards, go-boards (go-ban) and for an “Ema” (wooden tablet for prayers). It is also used to make insect-proof cabinets and for lacquer-ware materials, such as trays, bowls and containers for tea powder. The female tree is used to make (sheet) paper.

Adverse Reactions:

Allergy/hypersensitivity to Ginkgo biloba or members of the Ginkgoaceae family may occur. There is a case report of a severe reaction called Stevens-Johnson syndrome, including skin blistering and sloughing-off, after use of the ginkgo product One-A-Day® Memory and Concentration, which contains 60 milligrams of ginkgo leaf extract as well as vitamins B6, B12 and choline bitartrate. There may be cross-sensitivity to ginkgo in people allergic to urushiol (mango rind, sumac, poison ivy, poison oak, cashews), and an allergic cross-reaction has been reported in a person allergic to poison ivy.

If administered into a vein (IV), ginkgo may cause a skin allergy, blood vessel irritation and damage. Ginkgo fruit or pulp has caused strong allergic reactions after skin contact, and severe skin reactions and intestinal spasms have occurred after direct contact with fleshy fruit pulp. Overall, ginkgo leaf extract (used in most commercial products) appears to be well tolerated in most healthy adults at recommended doses for up to six months. In several reviews, ginkgo was associated with similar rates of side effects as placebo (sugar pill). Minor symptoms including headache, nausea, and intestinal complaints have been reported.

Bleeding has been associated with the use of ginkgo taken by mouth, and caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or taking drugs/herbs/supplements that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary. Ginkgo intake should be stopped prior to some surgical or dental procedures. Reports of bleeding range from nose bleeds to life-threatening bleeding in several case reports. In some of these reports, ginkgo has been used with other agents that may also cause bleeding. For example, spontaneous bleeding into the eye (hyphema) was reported in a 70 year-old man taking 80 milligrams per day of ginkgo for one week. This patient was also taking 325 milligrams of daily aspirin, which can also increase the risk of bleeding. Spontaneous bleeding into and around the brain has been reported in several cases: in a 33 year-old woman taking ginkgo 120 milligrams per day for two years with no other medications, in a 72 year-old woman (subdural bleeding), in a 61 year-old male taking ginkgo 120 to 160 milligrams per day for more than 6 months (subarachnoid hemorrhage), in a 56 year-old man who regularly used an herbal preparation including ginkgo, and in a 78 year-old woman taking ginkgo for 2 months in addition to the blood thinner warfarin (intracerebral bleeding). Excess bleeding has also been reported after gall bladder surgery (laparoscopic cholecystectomy).

Toxicity from eating ginkgo seeds is sometimes called “Gin-nan food poisoning,” and is documented in as many as 70 case reports between 1930-1970, with the worst effects seen in infants. Eating the seeds is potentially deadly, due to risk of tonic-clonic seizures and loss of consciousness. There is a case report of two patients with well-controlled seizure disorder who had seizures after starting ginkgo. However, reports of seizure activity associated with use of ginkgo leaf extract are rare.
Based on human study, ginkgo may theoretically affect insulin and blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia and in those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Serum glucose levels may need to be monitored by a healthcare professional, and medication adjustments may be necessary. There have been uncommon reports of headache, dizziness, stomach upset, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, muscle weakness, loss of muscle tone, restlessness, heart racing, rash, and irritation around the mouth with the use of ginkgo. There is a case report of coma in an elderly Alzheimer’s patient taking trazodone and ginkgo, although it is not clear that ginkgo was the cause. Based on laboratory and human research, ginkgo may decrease blood pressure, although there is one report of ginkgo possibly raising blood pressure in a person taking a thiazide diuretic (water pill). Theoretically, high concentrations of ginkgo may reduce male and female fertility. Contamination with the drug Colchicine has been found in commercial preparations of Ginkgo biloba.

Ginkgo may affect the outcome of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). Adverse effects on the eyes have also been reported.
Another study reported vomiting and convulsions from large quantities of MPN (4-O-methylpyridoxine), which is contained in Ginkgo biloba seeds.

Very Important: ConsumerLab.com (CL) tested supplements used to improve memory and cognitive function made with ginkgo. But CL found significant amounts of lead in supplements made with a form of ginkgo, while those made with another form did not. Several ginkgo supplements were also low in key compounds. And there was no active ingredient in a huperzine A product. That is the reason once more to use embryonic phytotherapy since the dosage is lower and prevents this dilemma with lead contamination and usually more powerful in active phytochemicals.

Possible Drugs Interactions:
Anticonvulsant medications. High doses of Ginkgo biloba could decrease the effectiveness of anticonvulsant therapy in patients taking carbamazepine or valproic acid to control seizures.

Blood-thinning medications. Ginkgo has blood-thinning properties and therefore should not be used if you are taking anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medications, such as Aspirin, ibuprofen, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, heparin, ticlopidine, or warfarin.

Cyclosporine. Ginkgo biloba may be a great adjuvant during treatment with cyclosporine because of its ability to protect cell membranes from damage.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs). Ginkgo may enhance the effects (both good and bad) of antidepressant medications known as MAOIs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine.

Papaverine. The combination of papaverine and ginkgo may be effective for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients who do not respond to papaverine alone.

Thiazide diuretics. Although there has been one literature report of increased blood pressure associated with the use of ginkgo during treatment with thiazide diuretics, this interaction has not been verified by clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when using ginkgo if you are taking thiazide diuretics.

Trazodone. Additionally, there has been a report of an adverse interaction between ginkgo and trazodone, an antidepressant medication that resulted in an elderly patient going into a coma.

Note: Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid using ginkgo preparations. In addition, ginkgo use should be discontinued at least 36 hours prior to surgery due to the risk of bleeding.


Abstracts of Published Research on Maidenhair Tree – Ginkgo Biloba:


1. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print]

Ginkgo biloba for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: A double blind, randomized controlled trial. Salehi B, Imani R, Mohammadi MR, Fallah J, Mohammadi M, Ghanizadeh A, Tasviechi AA, Vossoughi A, Rezazadeh SA, Akhondzadeh S.

2. Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print] Nutritional and exercise-based interventions in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Patel BP, Hamadeh MJ.

3. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Sep 8. [Epub ahead of print] A systematic review of single Chinese herbs for Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Fu LM, Li JT.

4. Neurol Sci. 2009 May;30 Suppl 1:S121-4.
Efficacy of Ginkgolide B in the prophylaxis of migraine with aura. D’Andrea G, Bussone G, Allais G, Aguggia M, D’Onofrio F, Maggio M, Moschiano F, Saracco MG, Terzi MG, Petretta V, Benedetto C.

5. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009 Sep;30(9):1262-75. Epub 2009 Aug 24.
Molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in hepatocytes: a comparative study with lovastatin. Xie ZQ, Liang G, Zhang L, Wang Q, Qu Y, Gao Y, Lin LB, Ye S, Zhang J, Wang H, Zhao GP, Zhang QH.

6. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):845-51.
A Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Ozgoli G, Selselei EA, Mojab F, Majd HA.

7. Bioresour Technol. 2009 Dec;100(24):6599-609. Epub 2009 Aug 8.
Potential of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves in the management of hyperglycemia and hypertension using in vitro models. Pinto Mda S, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI, Shetty K

8. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Oct 9;463(3):219-22. Epub 2009 Aug 4.
Improvement of auditory discrimination learning by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Moeller CK, Kurt S, Scheich H, Schulze H.

9. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(4):625-38.
Analysis of trace elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs. Xu H, Xu HE.


Oligo-elements:


Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:


B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, C, Calcium.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Acacetin, Acetic-Acid, Afzelin, Alanine, Alpha-Linoleic-Acid, Amentoflavone, Anacardic-Acid, Apigenin, Arginine, Ascorbic-Acid, Asparagine, Aspartic-Acid, Beta-Carotene, Bilobalide, Bilobetin, Bilobol, Butyric-Acid, Caprylic-Acid, Cardanol, Cardol, Citric-Acid, Cysteine, Cystine, D-Catechin, Fiber, Fructose, Gamma-Aminobutyric-Acid, Ginkgetin, Ginkgolic-Acid, Ginkgolide-A, Ginkgolide-B, Ginkgolide-C, Ginnol, Glutamic-Acid, Glycine, Histidine, Homoserine, Isoleucine, Isorhamnetin, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-3-Rhamnoglucoside, Leucine, Linoleic-Acid, Luteolin, Lysine, Methionine, Myristic-Acid, Nonacosane, Oleic-Acid, P-Coumaric-Acid, Palmitic-Acid, Palmitoleic-Acid, Phenylalanine, Pinitol, Procyanidin, Prodelphinidin, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-Rhamnoglucoside, Quinic-Acid, Sciadopitysin, Serine, Shikimic-Acid, Stearic-Acid, Stigmasterol, Succinic-Acid, Tannin, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valerianic-Acid, Valine.

More than 40 components of ginkgo have been identified but only two are believed to be responsible for the herb’s beneficial effects — flavonoids and terpenoids. As described earlier, flavanoids (such as quercetin) have potent antioxidant effects. Laboratory and animal studies have shown that flavanoids protect the nerves, heart muscle, and retina from damage.

Terpenoids (such as ginkgolides) improve blood flow by dilating blood vessels and reducing the stickiness of platelets. Ginkgo Biloba contains: approximately 24% flavone glycosides (primarily composed of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) and 6% terpene lactones (2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B, and C, and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide). Ginkgolide B accounts for about 0.8% of the total extract, and bilobalide accounts for about 3% of the extract. Other constituents include proanthocyanidins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric acid and ginkgolic acid (at most 5 ppm ginkgolic acids). Much of the curative properties of Gbe are due to the activities of these flavanoids. Ginkgo plant extracts, with an antioxidant action.

Contraindications: Idiopathic Trombocytopenia Purpura, or low platelets or any Allopathic anti-coagulants.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Neurological – Nervous System:


‘P’ Cognitive function, improves memory, prevents dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, mood elevator, mild anti-depressant, anti-anxiety. Tinnitus. Alleviates the effects of cerebral ischemia– the loss of blood flow to the brain — by inhibiting the production of toxic free radicals after an ischemic episode. Alleviates the effects of cerebral ischemia — the loss of blood flow to the brain by inhibiting the production of toxic free radicals after an ischemic episode. Also exerts a protective effect on nerve cells. Migraine headaches. May be of help in Multiple sclerosis.


Cardio Vascular System:


‘P’ Improves circulation through the body, Atherosclerosis, Intermittent Claudication of the lower extremities. Raynaud’s syndrome, reduces cholesterol. Lowers the risk of heart attack and stroke. Vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels). Arrhythmias, Hypertension.


Hematology:


‘P’ Ginkgolides are potent antagonists of platelet activating factor (PAF). Coumarin like. Thrombocytosis, blood thinner.


Infectious Diseases:


‘P’ Antibacterial, Antiviral. Modern science has proven that ginkgo trees contain 2-hexanal, a disinfectant that kills microbes. The acid on the leaves is poisonous to insects, to the Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria and to the viruses that affect tobacco and beans. PAF may also contribute to rejection of organ transplants.


Dermatology:


‘A’ Vitiligo


Ophthalmology:


‘A’ prevents retinal damage, macular degeneration, glaucoma. Increases ocular blood flow and improves visual field damage.


Hepatology:


‘A’ prevents fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.


Endocrine System:


‘A’ helpful in diabetes, increases glucose absorption. Affects insulin and blood sugar levels. Impotence/infertility (male). Impotence due to impaired penile blood flow.


Environmental Medicine:


‘A’ AMS (Acute Mountain Sickness) inhibits inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and also scavenges oxygen radicals; one of these actions might explain its effectiveness in preventing AMS. Antioxidants can help fight radiation damage from the sun, damage to cells from radiation exposure in the environment or nuclear disasters, septic shock and inflammation due to allergies by stopping the immune system from turning on itself.

If you do decide to take ginkgo buds on your next climbing trip, then it may make sense to avoid using aspirin as your analgesic of choice since it is also a blood thinner. To prevent associated headaches to AMS, mix with the following:

Climber’s Special PSC/PGH Complex™ (propriety blend, patent pending, belonging to PSC);

  1. Maidenhair Tree – Ginkgo Biloba (buds) 9 drops for circulation;
  2. Dog Rose – Rosa Canina (young shoots) 3 drops to prevent associated headaches;
  3. European Alder – Alnus Glutinosa (buds) 6 drops to prevent associated headaches; and
  4. Fig (Ficus carica) buds, 3 to 6 drops for motion sickness dizziness and nausea.

Warning: Never mix White Willow (Salix alba) buds with Maidenhair Tree (Ginkgo biloba) buds, unless calculated as intentional. However, in general, the two do not mix.


Pulmonary:


‘A’ non acute asthma and inflammations due to allergies. PAF contributes to inflammatory conditions, shock, bronchial constriction.


Oncology Investigational:


Antimetastatic activity of amentoflavone. Amentoflavone treatment significantly reduced tumor nodule formation accompanied by reduced lung collagen hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and uronic acid levels. This altered level of cytokines after amentoflavone treatment was also accompanied by enhanced natural killer cell antibody—dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Antimetastatic activity of amentoflavone using B16F-10melanoma—induced experimental lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice. Amentoflavone treatment significantly reduced tumor nodule formation accompanied by reduced lung collagen hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and uronic acid levels. This altered level of cytokines after amentoflavone treatment was also accompanied by enhanced natural killer cell antibody—dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Antimetastatic activity of amentoflavone using B16F-10 melanoma—induced experimental lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice. Amentoflavone treatment significantly reduced tumor nodule formation accompanied by reduced lung collagen hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and uronic acid levels. Acacetin (AC), the flavonoid compounds with same flavone ring structure but different substitution, has been shown to be effective against human prostate cancer(PCA) LNCaP and DU145 cells.