OAK – QUERCUS PEDONCULATA

 

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Part Used:


Buds

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

The Quercus pedonculata is a slowly growing, deciduous tree that is native to Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. It can grow to 140 ft tall with a rounded spread of 80 ft. Its deep green leaves are small, about 3 to 5 inches long, with extremely short leaf stems. Characteristic of all oaks, the leaves have 3 to 7 pairs of rounded lobes. Its flowers are hanging catkins that appear with the emerging leaves in early spring. The fruits are elongated acorns about an inch long with a cup that covers a portion of the nut. The acorns dangle on a peduncle either singly or in clusters and ripen by autumn, while its leaves change from green to brown.

The wood is hard, tough, and durable (even under water) and is highly valued for furniture and construction. It is also a good fuel and charcoal.

Edible uses include coffee, gum, and seed; other uses include basketry, charcoal, compost, fuel, ink, repellent, tannin, and wood.

The name quercus comes from the Celtic words quer (fine) and cuez (tree) (Grieve, 1979). Oak was so respected that a branch of the tree was stamped onto British coins for centuries. Oaks, being both pliable and extremely strong, were used for British ship building and also for train cars and knife handles. Historically, oak bark decoctions or tinctures have been used for lung, throat, and gastrointestinal disorders, particularly in England, although the Greeks and Romans were also well acquainted with oak’s astringent actions (Grieve, 1979). It has been used to treat hemorrhaging, intermittent fevers, chronic diarrhea, and dysentery. As a gargle, oak bark has been used to relieve chronic sore throats; it has also been prepared as a vaginal wash to treat leucorrhea (Hutchins, 1991). Quercus alba was listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia from 1820 until 1910 (Boyle, 1991).

Oak bark consists of the dried bark of young branches and saplings of Quercus robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein [Fam. Fagaceae], harvested in the spring, and their preparations in effective dosage. The preparation contains tannins.

Future uses for oak bark require examination. Oak bark may also prove to be useful in the treatment of urethral and kidney lithiasis. One study found that a proprietary medicine inhibited not only the formation of stones, but also the growth of bacteria surrounding them. Litiax® was also shown to be diuretic and significantly reduced inflammation and pain (Mandana-Rodriguez and Gausa-Rull, 1980). Oak bark may also be useful in treating patients with pyo-inflammatory skin diseases. A water-alcohol- glycerol extract has shown to have anti-staphylococcal activity (Molochko et al., 1990).

The German Commission E reported astringent and virustatic activity.

Recent animal experiments have found that through oral administration the saponins of the bark are able to reduce serum cholesterol levels. This activity is thought to be due to a reaction between the saponins and the bile acids, resulting in micelle formation and leading to inhibition of cholesterol uptake. The saponins are also thought to raise antibody production in the mouse; the experiments found that the immune response after viral infections was accelerated (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994).

The German Commission E approved the internal use of oak bark for nonspecific acute diarrhea, and local treatment of mild inflammation of the oral cavity and pharyngeal region, and genital and anal area. It was also approved externally for inflammatory skin diseases. The bark’s saponin content is thought to possess expectorant activity in respiratory complaints (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). Oak bark can be used topically for its astringent properties in cases of dermatitis without risk of irritation (Weiss, 1988).

Bach flower applications: Oak is used when a person is driven by a strong sense of duty and struggles on, even though exhausted; he suffers the effects of the limitations of illness and despair but never gives up. These applications also apply to Plant Stem Cell Therapy.


Abstracts of Published Research on Oak – Quercus Pedonculata:


1. Planta Med. 2009 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print] In Vitro Anticancer Potential of Tree Extracts from the Walloon Region Forest.
Frédérich M, Marcowycz A, Cieckiewicz E, Mégalizzi V, Angenot L, Kiss R.

2.Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print] Anti-necrosis potential of polyphenols against snake venoms. Leanpolchareanchai J, Pithayanukul P, Bavovada R.

3. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2009 Oct;31(5):375-81.
An evaluation of extracts of five traditional medicinal plants from Iran on the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity and scavenging of free radicals. Khazaeli P, Goldoozian R, Sharififar F.

4.J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print] Comparative Study of Antioxidant Properties and Total Phenolic Content of 30 Plant Extracts of Industrial Interest Using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, SOD, and ORAC Assays .Dudonné S, Vitrac X, Coutière P, Woillez M, Mérillon JM.


Oligo-elements:


Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Si, Zn.


Vitamins and Minerals:


A, B-1, B-2, B-3, C.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Auxins (IAA),Beta-Sitosterol,Brassinosteroids(BR),Catechin, Ellagitannin, Friedelin,Gibberellins (GA), Jasmonic acid, Catechin-Gallic Acid, Leucocyanidin, Leucodelphinidin,Meristems plant stem cells (PSC),Omega 3 fatty acids, Pectin, Quercetin,Salicylates (SA), Triterpene & Steroidal Saponins, Tannin, Tryptophan.Eight ellagitannins from Quercus robur L. wood have been studied by high-resolution 1H and 13C NMR and FAB-MS spectroscopy. Three of these polyphenols are known compounds, namely, Castalagin, Vescalagin, and Grandinin. Five of the Ellagitannins are new oligomeric compounds containing vescalagin or castalagin moieties bonded to a pentose, lyxose or xylose. The inter-unit linkages are carbon–carbon bonds between C-1 of the glucosyl residue of one unit and either the C-2 of the hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) group of a second unit and the C-1 of a pentosyl sugar.

References: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry is the RSC’s journal for high-quality, original organic chemistry research. Catherine L. M. Hervé Du Penhoat, Veronique M. F. Michon, Shuyun Peng, Carole Viriot, Augustin Scalbert and Douglas Gage.

Acidic Triterpene Saponins from European oak, Quercus Pedonculata revealed the presence of 2,3,19-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid (1), 2,3,19-23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid (2), and their corresponding glycosides, 28–D-glucopyranosyl-2,3,19-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid (3), and 28–D-glucopyranosyl-2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-ene-24,28-dioic acid (4).

Compounds were isolated and purified by successive flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, and structurally determined by NMR and LC-ESI/MS in the negative ion mode. Compounds 2 and 4 have been identified for the first time in Quercus species and are new compounds.

References: Arramon, G., Saucier, C., Colombani, D., Glories, Y. Faculté d’OEnologie, Université Victor Ségalen Bordeaux II-351, Cours de la Libération, F-33405 Talence Cedex, France.

Include about 10% saponins, 10% –15% tannins consisting of phlobatannin, ellagitannins and gallic acid. There is also calcium oxalate, starch, and a mixture of different triterpene glycosides with quillaic acid as the main sapogenin (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). Other constituents include tannic acid, oak-red, resin, pectin, levulin, and quercitol.


Quillaic Acid (triterpenoids saponins):


Antibacterial; Antiviral; Anti-Obesity; Antihypercholesterolemic; Inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase; A common quillaic acid which is decorated with oligosaccharides at C3 and in most cases C28. Saponin Detoxifying Enzyme. Saponins are also thought to raise antibody production. Pancreatic lipase is an enzyme involved in processing of fats in the digestive tract. By blocking it, Oak buds stops breakdown of dietary fats into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. The fats just pass through the body to be excreted. This has been shown to help people lose weight. Also lowers triglycerides in the liver.

Quillaic Acid (triterpenoids saponins) a fat-soluble lipase inhibitor which can contribute to prevention or treatment of obesity due to excessive fat intake or diseases caused by obesity. The metabolism of a tumor cell is different from its normal counterpart cell. Scientists have long suspected that metabolism is connected to tumor progression.

There are Two types of this Saponin constituent, namely Steroidal saponins and Triterpenoid saponins.

Steroidal saponins Anabolic; Androgenic; have a marked effect on hormonal activity. Triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone, which in turn stimulates the gonads to produce more testosterone. Increased testosterone levels by as much as 30 percent over a five-day period. Other studies have shown an increase in sperm production and motility, as well as increased sexual activity.

Triterpenoid saponins are strong expectorants. Expectorants are agents that increase bronchial secretions and facilitate their expulsion through coughing, spitting or sneezing. Also Inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase.

Recent animal experiments have found that through oral administration, the saponins of Oak are able to reduce serum cholesterol levels. This activity is thought to be due to a reaction between the saponins and the bile acids, resulting in micelle formation and leading to inhibition of cholesterol uptake. The saponins are also thought to raise antibody production in the mouse; the experiments found that the immune response after viral infections was accelerated (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994).

Contraindications:Do not use in hypertension or elevated testosterone, androgen induce acne, high DHEA or Cortisol, high prolactin level (galactorrhea) panic or anxiety attack or just hyperactive or tachycardia, arrhythmias.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Cardio Vascular System:


‘P’ Hypotension regulates blood pressure.Lowers cholesterol and triglycerides.


Endocrine System:


‘P’ General Tonic, Stimulates Adrenal functions (cortisone like), stimulates also the Pituitary gland, Balances the thyroid function, Reticulo-endothelial stimulation. Stimulates the productions of Testosterone.Andropause,Anti Senescence. Sexual and General Asthenia. Overworked & Rundown. Premature ejaculation (with Giant Redwood – Sequoia Gigantea), Male Climacteric. Revitalizes old and debilitated organs. Chronic leucorrhea.Inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase. Anti-Obesity. Quillaic Acid(triterpenoids saponins) a fat-soluble, lipase inhibitor which can contribute to prevention or treatment of obesity due to excessive fat intake or diseases caused by obesity. By blocking it, Oak buds stops breakdown of dietary fats into smaller molecules that can be absorbed by the body. Steroidal saponins Anabolic; Androgenic; have a marked effect on hormonal activity. Triggers the secretion of luteinizing hormone, which in turn stimulates the gonads to produce more testosterone. Increased testosterone levels by as much as 30 percent over a five-day period. Other studies have shown an increase in sperm production and motility, as well as increased sexual activity.


Dental:


‘P’ Gingivitis & Periodontal cicatrizing of the gingival mucosa.


Neurology:


‘P’ Re-occurring Bell’s Palsy. Neuroprotective Antioxidant


GI – Digestive System:


‘A’ Malnutrition, Anti-diarrhea,


Hematology:


‘A’ Rich in Copper & Iron Anemia. Increases Platelets and improves Spleen health.


Infectious Diseases:


‘A’ Antiviral. Receding Herpetic Infections.


Psychiatry:


Depression and Sexual Frigidity.


Pulmonary:


‘A’ Expectorants


Dermatology:


‘A’ Furunculosis. Topical for Bee Sting, eases the pain and promotes healing. For Warts use: Oak – Quercus Pedonculata / Robur (buds) a few drops topically with White Willow – Salix Alba (buds) initially you must use it 4x a day, with noticeable improvement reduce to 2x a day till gone; approximate duration to complete healing is 60 days.