OLIVE-OLEA EUROPAEA

Click to purchase Olive – Olea Europaea

Part Used:


Young Shoots

NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.

“The antimicrobial potential of eight phenolic compounds isolated from olive cake was tested against the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The phenolic compounds included p-hydroxy benzoic, vanillic, caffeic, protocatechuic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids, oleuropein and quercetin. Caffeic and protocatechuic acids (0.3 mg/ml) inhibited the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The same compounds apart from syringic acid (0.5 mg/ml) completely inhibited the growth of B. cereus. Oleuropein, and p-hydroxy benzoic, vanillic and p-coumaric acids (0.4 mg/ml) completely inhibited the growth of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and B. cereus. Vanillic and caffeic acids (0.2 mg/ml) completely inhibited the growth and aflatoxin production by both A. flavus and A. parasiticus, whereas the complete inhibition of the moulds was attained with 0.3 mg/ml p-hydroxy benzoic, protocatechuic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids The Olea europaea is a slowly growing, small evergreen tree that is native to the Mediterranean region, Asia, and parts of Africa. This tree grows 32 by 26 ft. Its leaves are oblong, 1 to 3 inches long, silvery green on top, and much paler underneath. Their protective coating and hairy undersides slow transpiration, enabling them to survive their hot, dry climate. The twigs of the Olea europaea are light grayish green, moderately stout, and finely fuzzy when young. Its bark is smooth and gray, becoming gnarled and twisted as the tree ages. Clusters of small, creamy white flowers blossom in clusters from the leaf axils during spring. Green, oblong fruits, about one and one-half inches long, appear after the blooms, ripening through autumn and into winter. As the oil content increases, the olives change color from green to violet to nearly black.

Edible uses include condiment, fruit, leaves, manna, and oil. Other uses include dye, hair, oil, soil stabilization, wood. Olive
wood is very hard, heavy, beautifully grained and is valued by cabinetmakers and woodworkers.

The oil from the pericarp is cholagogue, a nourishing demulcent, emollient, and laxative. Eating the oil reduces gastric secretions and is therefore of benefit to patients suffering from hyperacidity. The oil is also used internally as a laxative and to treat peptic ulcers. It is used externally to treat pruritus, the effects of stings or burns, and as a vehicle for liniments. Used with alcohol, it is a good hair tonic and used with oil of rosemary, it is a good treatment for dandruff. The oil is also commonly used as a base for liniments and ointments.

leaves are antiseptic, astringent, febrifuge and sedative. A decoction is used in treating obstinate fevers; they also have a tranquillizing effect on nervous tension and hypertension. Experimentally, the leaves have been shown to decrease blood sugar levels by 17 to 23%. Externally, they are applied to abrasions.

The bark is astringent, bitter and febrifuge. It is said to be a substitute for quinine in the treatment of malaria. In warm countries the bark exudes a gum-like substance that has been used as a vulnerary.

Research:

Life Sci. 1998; 62(6):541-546: “Oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, enhances nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages.” Visioli F, Bellosta S, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan, Italy. Francesco.Visioli@unimi.it.

“The Mediterranean diet, rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, has been associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer partly because of its high proportion of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, flavonoids and polyphenols. The major lipid component of such diet is the drupe-derived olive oil that can be distinguished from other seed oils for the peculiar composition of its non-triglyceride fraction. In fact, several minor components, including polyphenols, grant the oil its particular taste and aroma. Oleuropein, the most abundant among these components, has been shown to be a potent antioxidant endowed with anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the effects of oleuropein on NO release in cell culture and its activity toward nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. The results show that oleuropein dose-dependently enhance nitrite production in LPS-challenged mouse macrophages. This effect was blocked by the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME, indicating increased iNOS activity. Also, Western blot analysis of cell homogenates shows that oleuropein increases iNOS expression in such cell. Taken together, our data suggest that during endotoxin challenge oleuropein potentiates the macrophage-mediated response, resulting in higher NO production, currently believed to be beneficial for cellular and
organismal protection.”

J Pharm Pharmacol 1999 Aug;51(8):971-974. “On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol.” Bisignano G, Tomaino A, Lo Cascio R, Crisafi G, Uccella N, Saija A. Department Farmaco-Biologico, University of Messina, Italy.

“Secoiridoides (oleuropein and derivatives), one of the major classes of polyphenol contained in olives and olive oil, have recently been shown to inhibit or delay the rate of growth of a range of bacteria and micro fungi, but there are no data in the literature concerning the possible employment of these secoiridoides as anti-microbial agents against pathogenic bacteria in man. In this study five ATCC standard bacterial strains (Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 9006, Moraxella catarrhalis ATCC 8176, Salmonella typhi ATCC 6539, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) and 44 fresh clinical isolates (Haemophilus influenzae, eight strains, Moraxella catarrhalis, six strains, Salmonella species, 15 strains, Vibrio cholerae, one strain, Vibrio alginolyticus, two strains, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one strain, Staphylococcus aureus, five penicillin-susceptible strains and six penicillin-resistant strains), causal agents of intestinal or respiratory tract infections in man, were tested for in-vitro susceptibility to two olive (Olea europaea) secoiridoides, oleuropein (the bitter principle of olives) and hydroxytyrosol (derived from oleuropein by enzymatic hydrolysis and responsible for the high stability of olive oil). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) calculated in our study are evidence of the broad anti-microbial activity of hydroxytyrosol against these bacterial strains (MIC values between 0.24 and 7.85 microg mL(-1) for ATCC strains and between 0.97 and 31.25 microg mL (-1) for clinically isolated strains). Furthermore, oleuropein also inhibited (although to a much lesser extent) the growth of several bacterial strains (MIC values between 62.5 and 500 microg mL(-1) for ATCC strains and between 31.25 and 250 microg mL(-1) for clinical isolates); oleuropein was ineffective against Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. These data indicate that in addition to the potential employment of its active principles as food additives or in integrated pest-management programs, Olea europaea can be considered a potential source of promising antimicrobial agents for treatment of intestinal or respiratory tract infections in man.”

Life Sci 1994;55(24):1965-1671. “Oleuropein protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation.” Visioli F, Galli C. University of Milan, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Italy.

“The Mediterranean diet, rich in fruit, vegetables, grain, and vegetable oil (mainly olive oil) is correlated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Natural antioxidants contained in the Mediterranean diet might also play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, through inhibition of LDL oxidation. We tested this hypothesis “in vitro” by inducing LDL oxidation with copper sulphate and preincubating the samples with oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives that is one of the major components of the polyphenolic fraction of olive oil. Oleuropein 10(-5) M effectively inhibited CuSO4-induced LDL oxidation, as assessed by various parameters. We demonstrate in this investigation that polyphenolic components of the Mediterranean diet interfere with biochemical events that are implicated in atherogenetic disease, thus proposing a new link between the Mediterranean diet and prevention of CHD.”

J Med Food. 2002 Fall; 5(3):125-135. “Radioprotective Effects In Vivo of Phenolics Extracted from Olea europaea L. Leaves Against X-Ray-Induced Chromosomal Damage: Comparative Study Versus Several Flavonoids and Sulfur-Containing Compounds.” Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Lorente J, Alcaraz M. Research and Development Department, Furfural Espanol S.A., Camino Viejo de Pliego s/n, 80320 Alcantarilla, Murcia, Spain.

“The radioprotective effects of a polyphenolic extract of Olea europaea L. leaves (OL); the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, which are widely used as pharmaceuticals; and the sulfur-containing compounds dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, evaluating the reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse before and after X-ray irradiation. With treatment before X-irradiation, the most effective compounds were, in order, rutin > DMSO > OL > PTU > diosmin. These results showed, for the polyphenols studied, a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.965) between anticlastogenic activity and antioxidant capacity. The magnitude of protection with treatment after X-irradiation were lower, and the most effective compounds were, in order, OL > diosmin > rutin; DMSO and PTU lacked radioprotective activity. Therefore, OL is the only substance that showed a significant anticlastogenic activity both before and after X-ray irradiation treatments. Structurally, the free oxygen radicals and lipoperoxyradicals scavenging capacity and, consequently, the anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic compounds are based principally on the presence of specific functional groups, mainly catechol groups (rutin, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin), that also increase the stability of the aroxyl-polyphenol radical generated in the above processes.”

Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52(11):797-802. “Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea) in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats.” Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA, Abdallah DM, Nassar NN, Okpanyi SN, Kreuter MH. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

“A specially prepared olive leaf extract (EFLA 943) has been tested for its blood pressure lowering activity in rats rendered hypertensive by daily oral doses of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 50 mg/kg) for at least 4 weeks. Oral administration of the extract at different dose levels at the same time as L-NAME for a period of 8 weeks showed a dose dependent prophylactic effect against the rise in blood pressure induced by L-NAME, best effects being induced by a dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. In rats previously rendered hypertensive by L-NAME for 6 weeks and then treated with that dose of the extract for a further 6 weeks without discontinuation of L-NAME, normalization of the blood pressure was observed. The findings confirm previous reports on the hypotensive effects of olive leaf. The special extract, EFLA 943, was shown to give consistent results with little individual variability. The antihypertensive effect of the extract may be related to a variety of factors involving reversal of vascular changes involved in the L-NAME induced hypertension.”

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Apr;20;198(1):9-13. “In vitro antibacterial activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea.” L. Bisignano G, Lagana MG, Trombetta D, Arena S, Nostro A, Uccella N, Mazzanti G, Saija A. Department Farmaco-Biologico, University of Messina, Contrada Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy.

“In the present paper we report the ‘in vitro’ activity of eight aliphatic long-chain aldehydes from olive flavor (hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-eptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) against a number of standard and freshly isolated bacterial strains that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections. The saturated aldehydes characterized in the present study do not exhibit significant antibacterial activity, while the alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes have a broad antimicrobial spectrum and show similar activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The effectiveness of the aldehydes under investigation seems to depend not only on the presence of the alpha, beta-double bond, but also on the chain length from the enal group and on the microorganism tested.”

J Appl Bacteriol. 1993 Mar;74(3):253-259. “The effect of the olive phenolic compound, oleuropein on growth and enterotoxin B production by Staphylococcus aureus.” Tranter HS, Tassou SC, Nychas GJ. Division of Biologics, PHLS Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research, Salisbury, Wilts, UK.

“The presence of low concentrations (0.1% w/v) of oleuropein, a phenolic compound extracted from olives, delayed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in NZ amine A and brain heart infusion media modified by the addition of growth factors and glucose (NZA+ and BHI+), as indicated by changes in conductance, whilst higher concentrations (0.4-0.6% w/v) inhibited growth completely. Intermediate concentrations of oleuropein (0.2%) prevented growth in BHI+ but allowed growth to occur in NZA+ despite an extended lag phase (30 h). Concentrations of oleuropein > 0.2% inhibited growth and production of enterotoxin B in both types of media. Lower levels (0.1%) did not affect the final viable count and production of toxin in BHI+ but decreased the number of viable organisms and reduced the toxin production in NZA+ by eightfold. An increase in the concentration of oleuropein resulted in a decrease in the amount of glucose assimilated and consequently the amount of lactate produced. In addition, oleuropein prevented the secretion of a number of exoproteins. Addition of oleuropein during the exponential phase appeared to have no effect on the growth of Staph. aureus in NZA+.”

Microbios. 1998;93(374):43-54. “Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds.” Aziz NH, Farag SE, Mousa LA, Abo-Zaid MA. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technologyand quercetin.”

Oleuropein, when extracted out from olive leaves and taken internally, breaks down into elenolic acid. It acts as an antibacterial, antiviral, and antiparasitic substance and is in effect a very wide-spectrum natural antibiotic.

Olive trees, widely cultivated throughout Mediterranean countries as source of olives and olive oil, are now known to have another important role in protecting our health. Extracts from the leaves of the olive tree contain unique compounds that possess a natural ability to inhibit the growth of numerous viruses, bacteria, and other micro-organisms. Specific processing techniques employed on olive leaves and buds preserve their “bitter” properties, resulting in a potent substance that assists your immune system in combating microbial invaders.

The olive industry has long been aware and troubled by the antibiotic-like action of olives. Oleuropein, the main chemical component in green olives, has such strong anti-microbial properties that must be removed before olive fermentation (brining) can take place. Oleuropein is a bitter, phenolic glycoside present throughout the olive tree, including its fruit, leaves, bark, and roots. It is considered to be the source of the olive tree’s powerful disease-resistant property that helps protect it against insect and bacterial predators.

As early as 1855, medical reports have described the benefits of drinking a bitter tea brewed with leaves from the olive tree. Doctors reported improvements in patients with malaria who drank the olive leaf tea. In addition to this anti-protozoan effect, olive leaf extracts have been shown to inhibit the growth of numerous viruses and selected bacteria, including herpes 1 and herpes 2, staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus.

In 1969, researchers at Upjohn Company discovered that elenolic acid, a constituent of oleuropein, was the main antiviral ingredient. They identified the calcium salt of elenolic acid as a broad-spectrum antiviral agent active against every virus tested. This action did not seem to be specific against just one virus, but instead seemed to act fundamentally to inhibit replication of potentially any virus. Upjohn scientists also confirmed the exceptional safety of elenolic acid by administering it to animals in amounts many times greater than needed for antiviral effects.

The potent, protective antioxidant action of olive leaf extract on low density lipoproteins (LDL) has also been demonstrated. The LDL fraction of cholesterol is particularly susceptible to oxidation. Oxidized LDL is the most damaging form of cholesterol and can initiate damage to arterial tissues, thereby promoting atherosclerosis. The oleuropein component of olive oil may be in part responsible for the protective benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

Olive leaf extracts have been reported by leading clinicians to offer significant benefit when included as part of an “immune system and anti-aging enhancement program” designed to combat micro-organisms. Some individuals are reported to experience an initial “die-off,” or Herxheimer’s reaction, to micro-organism toxins (the effect of olive leaf extract killing off harmful micro-organisms which the body then has to process out of its system). This natural response of the body is not harmful and dissipates within a few days.

The effect of the die-off can be reduced by lowering the dose or even stopping it altogether for a time. One may need a few days for the body to pass through the die-off phase, and one option would be to seek the advice of a health care professional to help develop a supportive detoxification plan. Not all individuals experience the well-known Herxheimer’s die-off effect.
Olive leaf extract is a mild vasodilator and lowers blood pressure and thereby helps prevent angina.

There are important theories that rheumatoid arthritis may be caused by bacteria or other infectious agents. It would be interesting to see further research in this area, especially regarding rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, both of which could conceivably be caused by bacteria which have evolved in a unique way. It has already been proven that ulcers seem to be caused primarily by bacteria. Helicobacter pylori bacteria is often a precipitator of stomach cancer and a mutated form of the bacteria precedes some liver cancer. The effect of olive leaf extract on all cancers would be a feasible research project. The entire olive leaf extract contains a complex structure of esters, flavonoids, and multiple iridoids acting to directly inhibit the formation of resistance by disease-causing organisms (i.e., olive leaf extract weakens the organisms and makes them subject to effective attack by the body). Olive leaf extract is able to effectively weaken the disease-causing organisms by primarily dissolving the coating (the armor) of bacteria and preventing viral replication. In the case of HIV, the extract is both a protease inhibitor and a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Olive leaf extract is recommended by many health professionals for colds, cold sores (herpes), ear infections, eye infections, flu, impetigo, nose and throat infections, parasites, pink eye, and most bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.

Olive leaf extract also has a powerful immune system-boosting effect by means of increasing phagocytosis in white blood cell (the effect is the destruction of foreign bacteria and viruses that are literally gobbled up).
Olive leaf extract has proven so effective that it is now included in the standard formulas of several eastern European nations as a primary antibiotic.

Bach flower applications: For tiredness and exhaustion due to overwork, either physical or mental. The positive aspect of the remedy is to restore vigor and replenish energy; for people who are not depressed or anguished, but just drained of energy. These applications also apply to Plant Stem Cell Therapy.


Abstracts of Published Research on Olive – Olea Europaea:


1. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 May;33(5):461-3. Epub 2009 Jan 9.
Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.
Sudjana AN, D’Orazio C, Ryan V, Rasool N, Ng J, Islam N, Riley TV, Hammer KA.

2. Nephrology (Carlton). 2009 Feb;14(1):70-9. Epub 2008 Sep 22.
An in vitro investigation of herbs traditionally used for kidney and urinary system disorders: potential therapeutic and toxic effects. Wojcikowski K, Wohlmuth H, Johnson DW, Rolfe M, Gobe G.

3.Nephrology (Carlton). 2009 Feb;14(1):70-9. Epub 2008 Sep 22.
An in vitro investigation of herbs traditionally used for kidney and urinary system disorders: potential therapeutic and toxic effects. Wojcikowski K, Wohlmuth H, Johnson DW, Rolfe M, Gobe G.

4.Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 May;52(5):595-9.
Erythrodiol, a natural triterpenoid from olives, has antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in HT-29 human adenocarcinoma cells.Juan ME, Wenzel U, Daniel H, Planas JM.

5. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Dec;12(4):331-42.
Active components and clinical applications of olive oil.Waterman E, Lockwood B.


Oligo-elements:


B, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si.


Vitamins and Minerals:


Calcium, E.


Phytochemical Constituents:


Alpha-Tocopherol, Apigenin,Auxins (IAA), Beta-Amyrin, Beta-Carotene,Beta-Sitosterol, Brassinosteroids (BR), Caffeic-Acid, Catechin, Choline, Chrysoeriol-7-O-Glucoside,Cinchonine Alkaloid, Cinchonine, Cyanidin-3-Rutinoside,Cytokinins (CK, Elenolide, Esculetin, Esculin, Estrone,estrogenic, Fiber,Florigen, Fructose,Gibberellins (GA), Gamma-Tocopherol, Glucose, Kaempferol, Linoleic-Acid, Luteolin, Luteolin-4′-O-Glucoside, Luteoline-7-O-Glucoside, Mannitol, Maslinic-Acid,Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Myristic-Acid, Oleanolic-Acid, Oleic-Acid,Oleuropein, (-)-Olivil, Oleoside, Oleuropein, P-Coumaric-Acid, Palmitic-Acid, Pectin, Protocatechuic-Acid, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-O-Rhamnoside, Rutin, Squalene, Stearic-Acid, Uvaol,Verbascoside Antiestrogenic(Acetoside).

Apigenin, beta-(sitosterol glucoside, cinchonidine, esculetin, kaempferol, luteolin, mannitol, maslinic acid, oleanic acid, oleuropein, quercetin, rutin, tannins and calcium, natural source of tocopherols. The antiplatelet activity and antioxidant power of two isochromans [1-(3′-methoxy-4′-hydroxy-phenyl)-6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman (encoded L116) and 1-phenyl-6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman (encoded L137)] recently discovered in olive young shoots and synthesized in laboratory from hydroxytyrosol.
Estrone Estrogenic and Verbascoside Antiestrogenic (one of the three Estrogens): Antiimpotence; Antimenopausal; Antiprostatadenomic; Antivaginitic; Aphrodisiac; Carcinogenic; Estrogenic; Transdermal.

Estrone is one of the three estrogens, which also include estriol and estradiol. Estrone is the least abundant of the three hormones. However, there is a third type of estrogen called estriol, which is often called “the forgotten estrogen” because it has been overlooked in favor of its more dangerous cousins. Estriol is the estrogen which dominates during pregnancy, when huge amounts are produced by the placenta. Estriol has a much less stimulating effect on the breast and uterine lining than estradiol and estrone. In fact, estradiol is 1000 times more stimulating to the breast tissue than is estriol, according to leading authority Dr. John R. Lee of Sebastopol, CA. Estrone is considered even more risky, and is believed to be the estrogen most responsible for breast cancer.

Why has estriol been so ignored? Traditionally, it has been considered a weak or ineffective estrogen. It is true that it needs to be used in larger amounts than the more commonly used forms of ERT. However, in larger amounts estriol is quite effective. Also, it rarely produces the unpleasant side effects associated with Premarin. Estriol has been used in Europe for many years, but was not available in the U.S. until recently.

The most exciting thing about estriol is the fact that not only does it not promotes breast cancer, but considerable evidence exists to show that it protects against this disease. In 1978, Alvin H. Follingstead, M.D., wrote an article for the Journal of the American Medical Association calling for the use of estriol instead of estrone and estradiol. In support of his position, he cited a group of postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. When given small doses of estriol, 37% of the women experienced either a remission or a complete arrest of the metastasized lesions! In 1966, H. M. Lemon, M.D. demonstrated that women with breast cancer have lowered estriol levels. Later, he showed that women without breast cancer had naturally higher estriol levels (compared to estrone and estradiol) than those with breast cancer.

Dr. Julian Whitaker, publisher of the Health and Healing newsletter, says that “estriol’s anti-cancer effect is thought to be due to its anti-estrone characteristics. It apparently blocks the stimulatory effect of estrone on the breast.” Whitaker explains that estriol is “weaker” in that it requires 2 to 4 mg. of estriol to equal the effects of 0.6 to 1.25 mg. of Premarin. “But this is inconsequential”, says Whitaker, “when one considers that the more estriol a woman takes, the less likely she is to get breast cancer, which is exactly the opposite of the dosage relationships of the commonly used estrogens.”

Pro-Estrone is a phyto-estrogen product derived from natural plant extracts. The amount in these embryonic plant so not amount to any cancer potential also they are not isolated has is the case in compounding pharmacies.

Source: Crab Apple – Malus Sylvestris (buds), Maize – Zea Mais (rootlets), Olive – Olea Europaea (young shoots).
The isolation of new compound namely (-)-Olivil from a new plant source, Stereospermum personatum in good yield. It is proved to be a useful and better antioxidant molecule than the presently used medicinally important lipophilic antioxidants Prubucol and α-Tocopherol. It may have better therapeutic potential in inflammatory disease conditions, atherosclerosis, diabetic complications, cancer, hepatotoxicity and variety of disease conditions mediated through or fostered by oxidative stress and/or overt oxidative burden due to increased generation or under-scavenging of free radicals. Olive Fruit Extracts.

Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells.

Authors: Juan ME, Wenzel U, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Daniel H and Planas JM. Research Institute: Nutricion y Metabolismo Lipidico, Instituto de la Grasa, Seville (Spain) Publication: Journal of Nutrition. 2006 October; 136(10):2553-7

Oleuropein has also been shown effective against many bacteria. The proposed mechanisms of antibacterial activity are as follows:

1. Slows the growth rate and inhibits a number of enzymes;
2. Induces damage to the cell membrane thus affecting its permeability and resulting in a leakage of cytoplasmic constituents;
3. Inhibition of micrococcal nuclease and lysozyme;
4. Inhibits enzymes by reacting with the e-amino group of exposed lysine residues and the exposed n-terminal amino group of polypeptide chains;
5. Irreversible inhibition of DNA polymerase II and inhibition of DNA polymerase III holoenzymes;
6. Immune activation of host defense through direct stimulation of phagocytic activity.

Authors: Juan ME, Wenzel U, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Daniel H and Planas JM.
Research Institute: Nutricion y Metabolismo Lipidico, Instituto de la Grasa, Seville (Spain) Publication: Journal of Nutrition. 2006 October; 136(10):2553-7

Olives and olive oil are important ingredients of the Mediterranean diet and have been associated with lower cancer risk.

Olives are rich in healthy fatty acids but also contain some specific phytochemicals such as triterpenoids. These phytochemicals are mainly concentrated in the skin and function as insect antifeedants (aversive phytochemicals that inhibit feeding) and antimicrobial agents. Other triterpenoids found in plants, and which protect against cancer, are betulinic acid and ursolic acid. Previous studies with animals have shown that olive oil protects them against UV induced skin damage and inhibits colon carcinoma.

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an extract from olive skins on the proliferation and apoptosis of colon cancer cells. The main phytochemicals of the olive skin extract are triterpenes such as maslinic acid and oleanolic acid. The researchers found a dose-dependant antiproliferative activity of the phytochemicals. The extract also caused apoptosis of the colon cancer cells and activation of caspase-3, which is a key executioner of apoptosis. The cell death was induced by the intrinsic pathway as indicated by the presence in superoxide anions in the mitochondria. The olive extract caused a significant increase in reactive oxygen species levels in the mitochondria of the colon cancer cells. The concentration of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid used in this in-vitro test could also be realized by normal consumption of olive oil.

Mediterranean people consume daily 33 g olive oil, which contains 34 mg maslinic acid and 25 mg oleanolic acid.

The study concluded that the phytochemicals maslinic acid and oleanolic acid from olive skin extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells, without being toxic to normal cells.

Hydroxytyrosol, a natural molecule occurring in olive oil, induces cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 2000 November 30;278(3):733-9

Hydroxytyrosol is a natural phenolic antioxidant found in olive oil. It has many claimed biological and pharmacological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroxytyrosol on the proliferation and survival of a leukemia cell line. The researchers found that hydroxytyrosol caused a complete arrest of leukemia cell proliferation and even induced apoptosis. This apoptotic effect was not observed with tyrosol, suggesting that presence of two ortho-hydroxyl groups is required. The study concluded that hydroxytyrosol reduces the immunological response, resulting in anti-inflammatory and chemo-preventive effects.

The olive leaves contain many phytochemicals including Oleuropein, Ligustroside, Oleacein, Flavonoids and Triterpenoids.

The olive fruit and olive oil contains the antioxidants phytochemicals Hydroxytyrosol and Oleuropein
Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, secoiridoides contained in olive and olive oil, showed antimicrobial activity on ATCC and clinically isolated bacteria responsible for intestinal or respiratory tract infections in man. In particular, oleuropein inhibited the growth of Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp. and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) between 62.5 and 125 [microg/ml for ATCC strains and between 31.25 and 250 [microg/ml for clinical isolates. Hydroxytyrosol, derived from oleuropein by enzymatic hydrolysis, showed a broader spectrum and a higher potency in that it inhibited also Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catharralis; its MIC values were between 0.24 and 7.85 [microg/ml for ATCC strains and between 0.97 and 31.25 [microg/ml for clinical isolates (Bisignano et al., 1999). Furthermore, oleuropein showed activity against several species of Mycoplasma (Furneri et al., 2002).

In a recent open pilot study olive oil mixed with honey and beeswax was shown to be effective, after topical application, in the treatment of skin fungal infections; clinical response was obtained in 86% of patients with Pityriasis versicolor, 78% of patients with Tinea cruris and in 75% of patients with Tinea corporis (Al-Waili, 2004). The same preparation also resulted in effectively reducing the symptoms of diaper dermatitis and eradicated Candida albicans from 50% of culture-positive patients during a 7-day trial (Al-Waili, 2005).

Biochemist Arnold Takemoto: “it [Olive Leaf Extract] sure has power; particularly against viruses that are more tenacious!” According to laboratory tests, calcium elenolate (derived from oleuropein) kills viruses by interfering with certain amino acid production processes. This interference prevents virus shedding, budding or assembly at the cell membrane. Studies suggest that this compound has the ability to penetrate infected host cells and irreversibly inhibit viral replication. (e.g.) In retroviruses, this compound neutralizes the production of the reverse transcriptase enzyme (f,g) and is believed to also neutralize the protease enzyme as well. These enzymes are essential for retroviruses such as HIV to alter the RNA of a healthy cell.


Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:


Cardio Vascular System:


‘P’ Chelator of the Arteries. Anti-Sclerotic. Reduces deposited Cholesterol and Triglycerides. Reduces fibrinogen caused hyper viscosity of the blood, Antiplatelet, Thrombolytic States, Arteries and Cerebral Arteriosclerosis Hypotensive, Angina, Arrhythmias, Tachycardia, Neurosis of the extremities. Gangrene. Breaks down scar tissue at the arterial level. Improves Circulation. Verbascoside was shown to decrease blood pressure.


Immunology & Infectious Diseases:


‘P’ Contains 19 Antibacterial phytochemicals, 14 Antiviral phytochemicals and 10 Antiherpetic phytochemicals. Immune Stimulant and inhibits viral replication. AIDS, Herpes, EBV, CFS, CFIDS, Malaria, Fungal & Yeast Infections, Parasitic Infections, Colds, Flu. Calcium elenolate (derived from oleuropein) kills viruses by interfering with certain amino acid production processes. This interference prevents virus shedding, budding or assembly at the cell membrane. Studies suggest that this compound has the ability to penetrate infected host cells and irreversibly inhibit viral replication. In retroviruses, this compound neutralizes the production of the reverse transcriptase enzyme (RT) and is believed to also neutralize the protease enzyme as well.

Bacteria which it is sensitive to include: lactobacillus plantarum; l. brevis; pediococcus cerevisiae; leuconostoc mesenteroides; bacillus cereus; staphylococcus aureus; bacillus subtilis; enterobacter aerogenes; e. cloacae; escherichia coli; salmonella typhymurium; pseudomonas fluorescens; p. solanacearum; p. lachrymans; erwinia carotovora; e. tracheiphila; xanthomonas vesicatoria; and corynebacterium michiganese; salmonella spp., vibrio spp. and staphylococcus aureus; haemophilus influenzae and moraxella catharral.

Also shown to be effective against strains of malaria, including plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax, plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malariae.

Also against several species of Mycoplasma.


ENT:


‘P’ Otitis, Tonsillitis.


GI – Digestive – Hepatology:


‘P’ Helicobacter Pylori, Parasites, Infection related to Cholecystitis, Diverticulosis, Yeast Infections, Mild Laxative. Beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.


Neurology:


‘P’ Cerebral sclerosis, Memory loss, Senility, Facial Neuralgias, Multiple Sclerosis. Verbascoside was shown to decrease blood pressure and potentiate the anti-tremor effects of L-dopa.


Hematology Oncology:


‘P’ Antiplatelet activity. Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells. Leukemia cell line. The extract also caused apoptosis of the colon cancer cells and activation of caspase-3, which is a key executioner of apoptosis. The cell death was induced by the intrinsic pathway as indicated by the presence in superoxide anions in the mitochondria. The phytochemicals maslinic acid and oleanolic acid from olive extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells, without being toxic to normal cells. Also Hydroxytyrosol, a natural molecule occurring in olive, induces cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis. Also contains Verbascoside (iridoid glucoside): Synonyms: Acteoside, Kusaginin; Verbascoside demonstrated an inhibitory effect on protein kinase C (PKC) that could explain in part the antitumor activity. Cytotoxic activity against tumor cells which is involved in the antimetastatic activity was also reported. Result suggests that acteoside showed suppressive effect on lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells. Verbascoside Inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor, Nitric Oxide Inhibitor. Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells. Leukemia cell line. Apoptotic.


Musculoskeletal System:


‘A’ Rheumatoid Arthritis.


Renal – Uro Genital:


‘A’ Bladder Infections.


Ophthalmology:


‘A’ Pink Eyes.


Endocrine System:


‘A’ Diabetes, hypoglycemic. Diabetic Arteritis. Thyroid activity increased T 3 levels and reduced circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, possibly via a feedback mechanism.


Dermatology:


‘A’ Psoriasis, Infected Eczema, Wound healing, Diaper Dermatitis, Dandruff. Pityriasis versicolor, Tinea cruris, Tinea corporis, Candida albicans.


Psychiatry:


‘A’ Sedative. Obsessional Phobic Neurosis, Anguish.