Click to purchase Sweet Almond – Prunus Amygdalus

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NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constit

The Prunus amygdalus is a small deciduous tree from 10 to 18 feet high, with a pale-brown, rugged bark, dividing into many spreading branches. The tree is native to southwest Asia. Its toothed, thin leaves are lance-shaped, 2 to 4 inches long, and are a bright light-green. Leaves appear after a profusion of large, five-petalled, pink flowers adorn this tree in early spring. The fruits are flattened-ovoid, leathery drupes with a downy outer coat that spontaneously crack open, releasing the hard, edible kernel—the almond—inside. Edible uses include gum, milk, oil, and lubricant.

Fresh sweet almonds possess demulcent and nutrient properties, but as the outer brown skin sometimes causes irritation of the alimentary canal, they are blanched by removal of this skin when used for food. Though pleasant to the taste, their nutritive value is diminished unless well masticated, as they are difficult to digest and may in some cases induce nettle rash and feverishness. They have a special dietetic value, for besides containing about 20% protein, they contain practically no starch and are therefore often made into flour for cakes and biscuits for patients suffering from diabetes.
Sweet almonds are used medicinally; the official preparations of the British Pharmacopoeia are Mistura Amygdalae, Pulvis Amygdalae Compositus, and Almond Oil.

On expression, they yield nearly half their weight in a bland fixed oil which is employed medicinally for allaying acrid juices, softening and relaxing solids, and in bronchial diseases, tickling coughs, hoarseness, costiveness, nephritic pains, etc.
When almonds are pounded in water, the oil unites with the fluid, forming a milky juice– almond milk–a cooling, pleasant drink that is prescribed as a diluent in acute diseases and as a substitute for animal milk. An ounce of almonds is sufficient for a quart of water, to which gum arabic is in most cases a useful addition. The pure oil mixed with a thick mucilage of gum arabic forms a more permanent emulsion; 1 part of gum with an equal quantity of water being enough for 4 parts of oil. Almond emulsions possess in a certain degree the emollient qualities of the oil, and they have an advantage over the pure oil in that they may be given in acute or inflammatory disorders without danger of the ill effects that the oil might sometimes produce by turning rancid. Sweet almonds alone are employed in making emulsions because the bitter almond imparts its peculiar taste when treated in this way.

Blanched and beaten into an emulsion with barley-water, sweet almonds are of great use in the stone, gravel, strangury, and other disorders of the kidneys, bladder, and biliary ducts. By their oily character, sweet almonds sometimes give immediate relief in heartburn. For this, it is recommended to peel and eat 6 or 8 almonds.
Almonds are also useful in medicine for uniting substances with water. Castor oil is rendered palatable when rubbed up with pounded almonds and some aromatic distilled water.

The fixed Oil of Almonds is extracted from both bitter and sweet almonds. If intended for external use, it must, however, be prepared only from sweet almonds.

The seeds are ground in a mill after removing the reddish-brown powder adhering to them, and then subjected to hydraulic pressure. Afterwards, the expressed oil is filtered and bleached, preferably by exposure to light.

Edible Uses:
Seeds; Milk; Oil; Gum;

Seeds: These are eaten raw, cooked or dried and ground into a powder for use in confections, etc. The whole seed can also be roasted, sprouted, or used in cakes, confectionery, and pastry. The sweet-flavored forms have a delicious flavor, but bitter forms should not be eaten in any quantity (see the notes above on toxicity). The seed is somewhat difficult to digest and so needs to be thoroughly masticated. It can be blended with water to make almond milk.Edible oil is obtained from the seed. It is used mainly as a food flavoring and in cooking. An edible gum is obtained from points of damage on the stems.

Phytotherapy Indications:

Antitumor; Demulcent; Emollient; Nutritive; Pectoral.
As well as being a tasty addition to the diet, almonds are also beneficial to the overall health of the body, being used especially in the treatment of kidney stones, gallstones, and constipation. Externally, the oil is applied to dry skins and is also often used as carrier oil in aromatherapy. The seed is demulcent, emollient, laxative, nutritive, and pectoral. When used medicinally, the fixed oil from the seed is normally employed. The seed contains “laetrile,” a substance that has also been called vitamin B17. This has been claimed to have a positive effect in the treatment of cancer, but there does not at present seem to be much evidence to support such a claim. The pure substance is almost harmless, but on hydrolysis it yields hydrocyanic acid, a very rapidly acting poison. It should thus be treated with caution. In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates respiration, improves digestion, and gives one a sense of well-being.

The leaves are used in the treatment of Diabetes.

Almond is used in trade, as well as medicinally, being most valuable as a lubricant for the delicate works of watches, and is much employed as an ingredient in toilet soap because of its softening action on the skin. It forms a good remedy for chapped hands.

John Gerard, English herbalist, said in Gerard’s Herbal:

“The oil newly pressed out of Sweet Almonds is a mitigator of pain and all manner of aches; therefore it is good in pleurisy and colic. The oil of Almonds makes smooth the hands and face of delicate persons, and cleanses the skin from all spots and pimples.”And Nicholas Culpeper wrote: “The oil of both (Bitter and Sweet) cleanses the skin, it eased pains of the chest, the temples being anointed therewith, and the oil with honey, powder of liquorices, oil of roses and white wax, makes a good ointment for dimness of sight.”Culpeper also tells us of almond butter, saying: “This kind of butter is made of Almonds with sugar and rose-water, which being eaten with violets is very wholesome and commodious for students, for it rejoiced the heart and comforted the brain, and qualified the heat of the liver.”

Almonds have long been used as food by humans, animals, and birds. They contain protein and minerals such as calcium and magnesium. Due to their relatively high fat content, however, most nuts, including almonds, are also relatively high in calories. In general, nuts have not been recommended for general consumption as a regular part of the diet. However, several human and animal studies that were conducted in the last few years have found that replacing animal fat in the diet with either almonds or almond oil produced reductions in total cholesterol levels, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides. In addition, levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL)–the “good” cholesterol–remained relatively constant. In 2003, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed packages of almonds and other nuts to begin carrying a modified health claim: “Scientific evidence suggests but does not prove that eating 1.5 ounces, or 42.5242847 grams, per day of most nuts, such as almonds, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease.”
Sweet almond oil is used topically to moisturize dry skin, soothe chapped lips, and relieve itching due to dryness. Because sweet almond oil is not greasy, it is absorbed quickly. An especially mild oil, it generally does not irritate skin and it does not appear to cause sensitization that may lead to allergic reactions.

Occasionally, sweet almond oil is taken by mouth for a mild laxative effect.

If you find commercial soap products too drying for your face, check in your local health food store for facial soaps and cleansers derived from almond (Prunus amygdalus). The kernel from the almond plant provides us with one of the best face scrubs Mother Nature has to offer. Almond is also an excellent emollient.

A recent study suggests that almond oil may also help prevent heart disease. At the Health Research and Studies Center in Los Altos, California, almond oil was shown to lower serum cholesterol levels in people who consumed it in place of saturated fat. According to this study, almond oil was a more potent cholesterol-reducing agent than olive oil! Possible benefits of cleansers made from almond are the removal of excess oil and dirt from the skin. Almond butter and oil can moisturize and soften skin, and almond oil shows promise as a potent cholesterol reducer.

Almond can also be used externally as either almond meal or oil. A handful of almond meal makes a great face scrub, and applying the almond oil directly into rough areas helps moisturize and soften skin, particularly the hands and the heels of feet.

Abstracts of Published Research on Sweet Almond – Prunus Amygdalus

1. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2009 Jul;29(7):1997-2000.
Comparative study on eight trace elements in twelve flower medicines Niu YF, Han CM, Shao Y, Tao YD.

2. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 May;109(5):865-73.
Almonds have a neutral effect on serum lipid profiles: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Phung OJ, Makanji SS, White CM, Coleman CI.


Au, B, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Se, Si, Su, Ti, V, Zn.

Vitamins and Minerals:

B-1, B-2, B-3, B-5, B-6, B-17 Laetrile, Calcium, E, Folacin.

Phytochemical Constituents:

3-O-methylquercetin, 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-methylquercetin, 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside, 3-O-methylquercetin, Kaempferol 3-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1®6)-b-D-glucopyranoside, Adenosine, Alanine, Alpha-Linoleic-Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol, Amygdalin, Arginine, Ascorbic-Acid, Aspartic-Acid, Benzaldehyde, Beta-Carotene, Beta-Sitosterol, Caffeic-Acid, Catechin/Gallic Acid, Chlorine, Cresol, Cyanidin, Cystine,Cytokinins (CK), Daucosterol, Ethyl Acetate Eugenol, Ferulic-Acid, Fiber, Gamma-Tocopherol, Geraniol,Gibberellins (GA),Glutamic-Acid, Glycine, Histidine, Isoleucine, Isorhamnetin Glucoside,Jasmonic acid (JA), Isorhamnetin Rutinoside, Kaempferol, Lauric-Acid, Leucine, Linoleic-Acid, Lysine,Meristems plant stem cells (PSC), Mucilage, Myristic-Acid, Naringenin 7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, Oleic-Acid, Olein, P-Coumaric-Acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Palmitic-Acid, Palmitoleic-Acid, Phenylalanine, Phytic-Acid, Protocatechuic-Acid Prunasin,PUFA, Quercetin, Quercitrin,Salicylates (SA) Serine, Sphingolipids Stearic-Acid, Sterolins, Taxi Olin, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Uridine, Valine, Vanillic Acid.

Sweet Almond oil is said to have great nutritional value for all skin types. It has a similar make up to baby’s sebum, the oil naturally produced by the skin to protect it, and it is easily absorbed. It contains glucosides, minerals, and vitamins and is rich in protein.

The plant contains the antitumor compound taxi Olin.(flavonoid). Also anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Taxifolin glycoside seems to inhibit the dendritic cell responses stimulated by microbial products and IL-1β, suggesting that taxifolin glycoside may exert an inhibitory effect against dendritic-cell-mediated immune responses.
References: Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, South Korea 2: Pharmacognosy Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, South Korea.
The Chemopreventive Effect of Taxifolin Is Exerted through ARE-Dependent Gene Regulation (Molecular and Cell Biology)

Phase II detoxification enzymes are responsible for the detoxification and elimination of activated carcinogens, and thus act as important biomarkers for chemoprevention. In this study, we tested the chemopreventive activity of taxifolin, a flavanol compound purified from a mongolian medicinal plant, by measuring quinone reductase (QR) activity in HCT 116 cells. Taxifolin induced significant QR activity, but displayed relatively low cytotoxicity in cells (chemoprevention index=5.75). To identify the target genes regulated by taxifolin, DNA microarray was performed with a 3K human cancer chip containing 3096 human genes associated with carcinogenesis. Significant analysis of microarray (SAM) revealed 428 differentially expressed (DE) genes as statistically significant, with a false discovery rate (FDR) of 57.2% (delta=0.3366).
Sixty-five genes, including a few detoxification enzymes (NQO1, GSTM1) and an antioxidant enzyme (TXNRD1), were up-regulated and 363 genes were down-regulated in the presence of 60 jUM taxifolin. In view of the finding that selected genes of interest contained antioxidant response element (ARE), we hypothesize that taxifolin modulates chemopreventive genes through activation of the ARE. Transient transfection experiments using the ARE QR-CAT construct demonstrate that taxifolin significantly activates ARE, but not xenobiotic response element (XRE). In conclusion, taxifolin acts as a potential chemopreventive agent by regulating genes via an ARE-dependent mechanism.

References: Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 30(6) pp.1074-1079 20070601. The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Taxifolin is an antioxidant that prevents corruption of the mitochondria by acting as an hydrogen donating free radical scavenger. It suppresses the cytotoxicity of superoxide ions and hydrogen peroxidemammalian cell lines. They play a role in metal-overload diseases and in all oxidative stress conditions involving a transition metal ion. There are phytochemical substances in nature that allow certain organisms to survive against a high constant dosage of ultraviolet light and attacks by wide range of pathogens, parasites, natural disasters and dwellers taxifolin is one such substance found in Sweet Almond buds. The absolute bioavailability of taxifolin after oral administration of lipid solution was 36%. Taxifolin was more effective antioxidant than BHA and a-tocopherol. TBARS value of taxifolin was 36%, which was less than that of BHA (51%) and higher than that of -tocopherol (25%).The antifungal activity of taxifolin was better than that of benzoic acid on the two species of gram positive bacteria and three species of gram-negative bacteria. The inhibition effect of taxifolin on cell growth was evaluated in liquid culture by using UV/Visible spectrophotometer. Growth of most bacteria was inhibited at the taxifolin concentration of 20*10–4M.

References: Antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of taxifolin Lee Ki Young1, Lee Kyung Seok1 and Lee Choong Hwan2
1 Food & Biotechnology, Hoseo University, Sechul-ri, Baebang-myeon, Asan, Korea, Republic of, 2 Konkuk University, Division of Bioscience and Biotechnology, IBST, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Recent research has also revealed that sphingolipids have the capacity to inhibit the development of early stages of colon cancer in mice and decreases the proportion of adenocarcinomas vs. adenomas in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated CF1 mice. Therefore, the spingolipid compound we identified in almond nuts could be an active compound responsible for the suppression of aberrant colonic crypt foci formation.
A study has shown that phenol in almond oil injection therapy is a simple and safe procedure for anorectal prolapse in children. Nine children with rectal prolapse, aged from 2 to 14 years were treated by phenol in almond oil injection sclerotherapy. All nine patients were cured after one to three injections without any complications. Two out of 4 children with constipation prior to injection therapy had no longer constipation thereafter. Angerpointner TA The treatment of rectal prolapse in children with phenol in almond oil injection. J Pediatric Surg. 2005 Jul;40(7):1217.
Now research is showing many of these stories to be true. Research is also being conducted into the impact of almonds on cancer. There are early indications that almonds may play a role in the prevention of colon cancer. The antioxidant polyphenols, vitamin E, B-17 and dietary fiber in almonds may be the components that exert the greatest cancer preventive effect.

Prunus amygdalus extract showed a significant increase in the sperm content.

Almonds also contain many phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants.
Fatty Acid Composition of Study-Provided Sources of Fat (g/day)||~ ||~ Prunus Amygdalus
(100 g)

Virgin Olive Oil (48 g) Cheddar cheese (85 g)
Butter (28 g)
Total Fat 48.0 47.5 55.3
MUFA MonounsaturatMonounsaturated fatty acid 30.0 35.7 16.9
PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid 14.0 3.8 1.7
SFA Saturated fatty acid 4.0 8.0 36.7

The effect of Synergy between plant Sterols and Fatty acids, from the buds of the sweet almond in treating hypercholesterolemia.


is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when uracil is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond.

If uracil is attached to a deoxyribose ring, it is known as a deoxyuridine. Harvard researchers report that supplementation in rats with a combination of uridine and EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acids has antidepressant activity equivalent to that of commonly prescribed antidepressant medications, such as Prozac and other SSRIs.

Uridine supplement reverses thymidine-induced lipoatrophy. Uridine is not a potential treatment for lipoatrophy in itself – it only reverses fat loss in people who are using lipoatrophy-causing treatment. Nevertheless, it is very interesting to know that a protective agent is available for people who are dependent on either d4T or AZT. Uridine supplementation for the prevention and treatment of side effects related to the use of various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) in the treatment of HIV associated with mitochondrial toxicity. The prominent nucleoside was found to be a 2′,3′,5′-tri-O-acetyluridine (TAU).
Some drugs used for the treatment of cancer may also damage the mitochondria. In the 1980s and 1990s, in clinical trials with cancer patients, researchers found that the natural nucleoside uridine can reduce the toxicity of some forms of chemotherapy.

Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications:
Most Powerful Antioxidant

Cardio-Vascular System:

‘P’ Antisclerotic Agent. Improves Circulation. Angiosclerosis, Coronaritis, Reduces Triglycerides and raises HDL Cholesterol when too low, Hypertension, Arteritis, Post Infarct cicatrisation of the Myocardium. Reduces C-reactive protein (CRP) as a biomarker of inflammation linked to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Taxifolin inhibits cholesterol synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, taxifolin suppresses HMG-CoA (natural Statin) reductase activity and cholesteryl ester formation taxifolin inhibits the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol and phospholipids and taxifolin decreases the secretion of apolipoprotein B into LDL-like particles.


‘P’ Anticoagulant. Early stages of colon cancer decrease the proportion of adenocarcinomas vs. adenomas suppression of aberrant colonic crypt foci formation. prunasin family that have been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. “Evaluation was done of the cytotoxicity of global methanol extract, aqueous extracts and prunasin against P-388 murine leukemia, A-549 human lung carcinoma and HT-29 colon carcinoma. Sphingolipids are commonly believed to protect the cell surface against harmful environmental factors by forming a mechanically stable and chemically resistant outer leaflet of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer. Certain complex glycosphingolipids were found to be involved in specific functions, such as cell recognition and signaling. Recently, relatively simple sphingolipid metabolites, such as ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, have been shown to be important mediators in the signaling cascades involved in apoptosis, proliferation, and stress responses. There are several disorders of sphingolipid metabolism, known as sphingolipidoses.

Sphingolipids Suppress Tumorigenesis and Gene Expression in 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Treated CF1 Mice and ApcMin/+ Mice.” Journal of Nutrition. 2004;134:1157-1161.

Studies also indicate that sphingolipids may influence cell regulation pertaining to carcinogenesis may combat colon cancer. Researchers propose that sphingolipids inhibit the growth and metastasis of tumor cells and transform precancerous cells to more normal cells. Glucosylceramide may reduce colon cancer risk.

While other plants also contain sphingolipids, Prunus Amygdalus buds contains relatively high amounts of glucosylceramide.

The Chemopreventive Effect of Taxifolin Is Exerted through ARE-Dependent Gene Regulation. Taxifolin acts as a potential chemopreventive agent by regulating genes via an antioxidant response element ARE-dependent mechanism. Phase II detoxification enzymes are responsible for the detoxification and elimination of activated carcinogens, and thus act as important biomarkers for chemoprevention.

Taxifolin is an antioxidant that prevents corruption of the mitochondria by acting as an hydrogen donating free radical scavenger. It suppress the cytotoxicity of superoxide ions and hydrogen peroxidemammalian cell lines. They play a role in metal-overload diseases and in all oxidative stress conditions involving a transition metal ion.

Taxifolin also demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in in-vitro studies. Taxifolin down-regulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). It impeded the calcium influx induced by fMLP (a receptor-mediated activator) or AlF(4)(-) (a G protein-mediated activator) and effectively inhibited the fMLP- or PMA-induced ROS production with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC (50)) less than 10microM, possibly through impairing the activation of NADPH oxidase. References: Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Jun 15;67(12):2251-62.

GI-Digestive Hepatology:

‘P’ Diverticulosis, precancerous colon polyp’s cancer and high fat diet consumption. Suppression of aberrant inhibits early stages of colon cancer (appearance of aberrant crypt foci, ACF). Assist the liver in braking down fats. Anorectal prolapse in children. IBS, Constipation.Uridine can reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy and many allopathic drugs. Bile duct Lithiasis, Cholelithiasis.

Infectious Diseases:

P Thymidine-induced lipoatrophy. Recently, according to a letter to the editor in the April 30, 2004 issue of the journal AIDS, a research team in Freiburg and Wuerzberg (Germany) conducted further laboratory experiments with liver cells and nukes. They found that uridine protected cells from the toxicity of ddC, d4T, AZT and 3TC but not ddI. Uridine supplements can help people with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) who have symptoms of mitochondrial toxicity. For many years a class of drugs called nukes (nucleoside analogues) has been the cornerstone of combination therapy to treat HIV/AIDS. Examples of nukes include the following: AZT (zidovudine, Retrovir)

d4T (stavudine, Zerit)
3TC (lamivudine, Epivir)
ddI (didanosine, Videx)
ABC (abacavir, Ziagen)
ddC (zalcitabine, Hivid)

Some nukes have been linked with certain side effects, including:

  • damage to the nerves in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy)
  • painfully swollen pancreas glands (pancreatitis)
  • swollen, fatty liver
  • loss of subcutaneous fat in the arms, legs, face and buttocks
  • higher-than-normal levels of lactic acid in the blood

References: Walker UA, Langmann P, Miehle N, et al. Beneficial effects of oral uridine in mitochondrial toxicity. AIDS 2004;18(7):1085-1086.
Sommadossi J-P, Carlisle R, Schinazi RF and Zhou Z. Uridine reverses the toxicity of 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine in normal human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in vitro without impairment of antiretroviral activity. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1988 ;32(7):997-1001.

Neurological System:

P There are several disorders of sphingolipid metabolism, known as sphingolipidoses. The most common is Gaucher’s disease. They occur mostly in nonneuronal tissue and accumulate abnormally in Gaucher disease, where glucocerebrosidase is absent or nonfunctional. Also of note is Fabry’s disease, an X-linked recessive condition wherein a buildup of glycosphingolipids in lysosomes of various tissues is due to alpha-galactosidase deficiency. Sphingolipids found in nerve tissues also in high concentration in the brain sphingolipids, sphingomyelins, and other brain constituents, which may have led to improvements in brain function. Oral uridine decreases neurodegeneration, behavioral impairment, weight loss and mortality in the 3-nitropropionic acid mitochondrial toxin model of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease (HD) is associated with decreased activity of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). De novo biosynthesis of uridine nucleotides is directly coupled to the respiratory chain. Administration of complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) induced neuronal damage in the striatum, substantia nigra and/or thalamus in 80% of the mice and led to 38% mortality. Treatment with uridine almost completely prevented the neuronal damage due to 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP) and completely prevented mortality.


A Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in plants. Their potent bio-activities and relatively low toxicity have rendered them useful ingredients in functional cosmetics. Taxifolin increases the tyrosinase protein levels in the absence and presence of alpha-MSH and effectively inhibits tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of l-dihydroxyphenylalanine in cell-free extracts and in living cells.
Furthermore, they attenuate cell pigmentation induced by expression of exogenous human tyrosinase. The antimelanogenic effects of taxifolin are attributed to their inhibitory effects on tyrosinase enzymatic activity.

Renal System:

‘A’ Reduces Uric acid and blood urea. Antisclerotic of the Kidneys, Renal Amyloidosis, Lipoid Nephrosis, Nephrosclerosis,


‘A’ Bile duct Lithiasis, Cholelithiasis.

Endocrine System:

‘A’ Stimulates the thyroid and reduces thyroid adenoma. Significant increase in the sperm content.


‘A’ Phobic neurosis, Obsessional Neurosis. In research that literally offers food for thought, scientists have found that omega-3 fatty acidsanduridine – a natural substance found in foods and plants work as well as antidepressants in preventing signs of depression. It is an important element in mother’s milk, and baby formula is enriched with uridine because it is essential for early nerve growth. There are growing indications that mitochondria are involved in psychiatric conditions other than depression, Carlezon said. McLean researchers have found major alterations in the genes for mitochondria in people with bipolar disorder, a condition that includes cycles of depression. – (Health Day News).


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