Anthocyanins and anthocyanidins are plant pigments that help vascular tone and integrity. EPEs contain:
• High concentration of non-manmade amino acids.
• Biophotons that give much needed light energy to remove debris from “darkened” cells and restore the electron walls of the cells, thereby preventing pathogen invasion.
• High content of antioxidants, which is effective in reducing oxidative stress.
• Essential minerals.
• Nucleic acids for DNA and RNA repair.
• Omega 3 fatty acids, which are well known for their antiinflammatory activity.
• Vitamins and Minerals.
Many phytochemicals found in EPEs contain high amounts of various kaempferols and resveratrol, which are well known to activate the protein sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and other sirtuins implicated in influencing a wide range of cellular processes, like aging, transcription, apoptosis, and inflammation, and have a molecular link between metabolism and immunity (Preyat, 2013; Wade 2008). EPEs’ growth, immune, and stress hormones play a role in increasing collagen and elastin, which has an effect on decreasing the appearance of wrinkles and increasing skin elasticity. They play a regulatory role in preventing photoaging of the skin, thereby retarding senescene.